A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
181 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2001

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to the President such modifications … [read more]

On December 17, 1903, from the dunes near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Orville Wright made the first manned flight in an engine-powered aircraft. Though the flight only covered 120 feet and lasted just 12 seconds, Orville and his brother Wilbur Wright changed history on that cold and gusty winter day. … [read more]

1. On October 24, 2000, the United States of America and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan entered into an Agreement on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area (the “JFTA”). 2. Section 101 of the United States-Jordan Free Trade Area Implementation Act (the “JFTA Act”) (Public Law 107-43, 115 Stat. … [read more]

The terrible tragedies of September 11 served as a grievous reminder that the enemies of freedom do not respect or value individual human rights. Their brutal attacks were an attack on these very rights. When our essential rights are attacked, they must and will be defended. Americans stand united with … [read more]

On the morning of December 7, 1941, America was attacked without warning at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, by the air and naval forces of Imperial Japan. More than 2,400 people perished and another 1,100 were wounded, triggering our entry into World War II. Today, we honor those killed 60 years ago … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2002 … [read more]

Pursuant to section 405 of the Admiral James W. Nance and Meg Donovan Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001, as enacted in Public Law 106-113, I hereby certify that: (i) training or exchange programs conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation or other Federal law enforcement agencies … [read more]

This year marks the 20th year that the world has been fighting the disease that we now know as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS has inflicted a terrible toll upon the world, taking millions of lives and causing untold grief to the families and friends of its victims. An estimated … [read more]

During the past century, we have made significant progress in our fight against disease. Through public health campaigns and aggressive research, we have eliminated polio in the United States, reduced the harm of influenza outbreaks, and developed revolutionary new medications that provide relief and healing from many chronic and acute … [read more]

Each year, approximately 700,000 terminally ill patients and their families rely on the invaluable end-of-life care provided by the 3,100 hospice programs located in the United States. Hospice care allows a terminally ill individual to receive professional medical services, pain management therapy, and emotional and spiritual support, without having to … [read more]

Each December we turn our attention to the problem of drunk driving by observing National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month. Though the holidays bring joy in celebrations with family and friends, they also bring a tragic increase in the incidence of impaired driving. This season, I ask each American … [read more]

American families are the bedrock of our society. They are the primary source of strength and health for both individuals and communities across our Nation. As we continue our recovery from the horrific acts committed by terrorists against the United States on September 11, our families provide us with a … [read more]

1. On February 16, 2000, pursuant to section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2253), President Clinton issued Proclamation 7273, which imposed a tariff-rate quota (TRQ) on certain steel wire rod imports provided for in subheadings 7213.91, 7213.99, 7227.20 and 7227.90.60 of … [read more]

We must preserve our natural heritage by serving as good stewards of our land. Recycling helps to serve this important function by conserving our natural resources as we reuse them where we can. Recycling safeguards our environment and helps keep America beautiful for present and future generations. The United States … [read more]

Nearly half a century ago, President Dwight Eisenhower proclaimed Thanksgiving as a time when Americans should celebrate “the plentiful yield of our soil . . . the beauty of our land . . . the preservation of those ideals of liberty and justice that form the basis of our national … [read more]

1. Proclamation 7208 issued July 7, 1999, implemented action of a type described in section 203(a)(3) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2253(a)(3)) (the “Trade Act”), with respect to imports of fresh, chilled, or frozen lamb meat, provided for in subheadings 0204.10.00, 0204.22.20, 0204.23.20, 0204.30.00, 0204.42.20, … [read more]

Our National Guard and Reserve forces play a vital role in helping America respond when our interests are threatened around the world. They are an indispensable part of our Nation's efforts to promote democracy, peace, and freedom, and, in the wake of the September 11 attacks, National Guard and Reserve … [read more]

Approximately 16 million American adults suffer from a devastating disease for which there is no cure. The disease is called Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and it is a growing problem in this country and throughout the world. COPD claims more than 100,000 lives per year, drains the American economy … [read more]

Alcohol and drug addiction exacts a devastating toll on our Nation. Approximately 14 million adults are alcoholics or abusers of alcohol, and one in four of our children are exposed to alcoholism or alcohol abuse in their families before age 18. Three million children between the age of 14 and … [read more]

Approximately four million Americans suffer from Alzheimer's disease. It is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain that robs those affected of their memory and much of their mental and physical function, leading to their total dependence on caregivers, and ultimately death. Slightly more than half of Alzheimer's disease patients … [read more]

During November, we traditionally give thanks for our many blessings, which include the dedication and sacrifice of our Nation's many family caregivers who enhance the lives of loved ones by helping them live at home, despite challenges that hinder independent living. More than 7 million Americans devote themselves to this … [read more]

During the Cold War, freedom and authoritarianism clashed. Countries and entire regions suffered under repressive ideologies that sought to trample human dignity. Today, freedom is again threatened. Like the fascists and totalitarians before them, Al Qaida, the Taliban regime that supports them, and other terrorist groups across the world seek … [read more]

The strength of our Nation comes from its people. As the early inhabitants of this great land, the native peoples of North America played a unique role in the shaping of our Nation's history and culture. During this month when we celebrate Thanksgiving, we especially celebrate their heritage and the … [read more]

As fall harvesting occurs and Americans gather with family and friends during Thanksgiving to share holiday meals, we celebrate our Nation's farmers and ranchers who provide us with abundant agricultural products, and we recognize all of those who help get those food products from the farm to our tables. The … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, President Clinton declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Pursuant to section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)), I determine that state trading enterprises account for a significant share of the exports of the People's Republic of China (China) and goods that compete with imports into China. I further determine that such … [read more]

Section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)) (the “1988 Act”), requires the President to determine for any major trading country that is acceding to the World Trade Organization (WTO) whether state trading enterprises account for a significant share of the exports of that … [read more]

Children deserve to be raised in loving families with parents who protect and nurture them. For some children, adoption is their best chance for a healthy and happy life. Each year, American families adopt approximately 120,000 newborn or older children, providing them with a loving and supportive environment. Despite this … [read more]

By observing National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we recognize the often devastating effects prostate cancer has on the lives of the more than 1 million American men currently suffering from it; and we commit ourselves to finding a cure for this disease. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form … [read more]

Two hundred and twenty-five years ago, the signers of the Declaration of Independence declared that “all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.” Throughout the course of American history, courageous men … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Our Nation was built on a foundation of sound moral principles. The heroes of American history responded to threats to their freedom by choosing to fight for these timeless principles, assuming duties that superseded their self-interest. The character of America's founders was exemplified in their willingness to risk death in … [read more]

Drug and alcohol abuse in America annually create staggering societal costs and prevent millions of people from reaching their full potential at school, on the job, and in their communities. The Department of Health and Human Services estimates that approximately 14 million Americans use illegal drugs and 17 million Americans … [read more]

On June 26, 1945, representatives from 50 countries signed the charter creating the United Nations (U.N.), which inaugurated a new era of unprecedented international cooperation. The world had then just emerged victorious against the threat of global tyranny, and these representatives resolved to preserve peace through international cooperation and collective … [read more]

Our Nation has been blessed with and sustained by its many natural resources. Among these resources, one that has provided us with both vital products and much enjoyment is America's forestland. Throughout our Nation's history, our forests have provided paper products, construction materials for dwellings and furniture, and fuel for … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 614(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is important to the security interests of the United States to furnish up to $50 million for Pakistan without regard to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 538(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001, Public Law 106-429, as provided for in the Joint Resolution Making Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2002, and for other Purposes (Public Law 107-44), I hereby determine … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia, and the unparalleled violence, corruption, … [read more]

Our Nation's future depends on fulfilling the promise in our children. As parents, teachers, community activists, governmental leaders, and concerned citizens, we must strongly commit ourselves to ensuring that our young people receive the care, education, and resources they need to realize their potential. Since 1946, the National School Lunch … [read more]

National White Cane Safety Day, observed annually on October 15, is a day of special significance for blind and visually impaired Americans because it represents a declaration of freedom. It also signifies a commitment by the sighted community to improve access to basic services for blind and visually impaired persons. … [read more]

On Leif Erikson Day, we join our friends in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden to celebrate and pay homage to our shared ideals and commemorate the contributions of Nordic Americans to our culture. We honor the explorers who led the first Viking explorations at the beginning of the last … [read more]

I came here, where freedom is being defended, to serve it, and to live and die for it. —General Casimir Pulaski in a letter to General George Washington Every year, on October 11, we honor the memory of Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, a courageous soldier of liberty who bravely gave … [read more]

More than 500 years ago, Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain on his historic voyage to what would be called the “New World.” His celebrated journey inaugurated an age of exploration that changed the course of history and enormously expanded our understanding of the world. Columbus' willingness to brave the … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Michael J. Mansfield, retired Majority Leader of the United States Senate and Ambassador of the United States to Japan, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of … [read more]

The well-being of our Nation's citizens requires that families, communities, emergency workers, and health professionals work together to ensure the highest levels of public safety. This goal is particularly important with respect to fire prevention. The 2000 National Fire Experience Survey, conducted by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), reveals … [read more]

Each year, on October 6, we recognize German Americans for their many contributions to our Nation. From the first German immigrants who accompanied Captain John Smith to Jamestown more than 300 years ago to the more than 7 million Germans who have since followed them to our shores, Americans of … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $25 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet unexpected urgent … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 614(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is important to the security interests of the United States to furnish up to $50 million for Pakistan without regard to … [read more]

This October, as we mark the 12th observance of National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to the struggle against breast cancer and salute the courage of Americans living with this serious disease. The effects of breast cancer have touched many of us, whether through personal diagnosis or … [read more]

Our Nation's annual observance of National Disability Employment Awareness Month allows us to reflect upon, and consider the potential possessed by, the millions of Americans with disabilities who currently serve in our workforce, as well as those who are ready and willing to join the workforce. In keeping with this … [read more]

The social blight of domestic violence has continued to burden America into the 21st Century. Our homes should be places of safety and comfort. Tragically, domestic violence can and does turn many homes into places of torment. The grim facts speak for themselves: almost one-third of American women murdered each … [read more]

Many of us fondly remember the joys and challenges of childhood and appreciate the endless sacrifices that our families made to love, protect, and encourage us as we grew into adulthood. On Child Health Day, we take time as parents and concerned citizens to assess the health and well-being of … [read more]

I find that it is in the paramount interest of the United States to exempt the United States Air Force's operating location near Groom Lake, Nevada, the subject of litigation in Frost v. Perry (D. Nev. CV-S-94-714-PMP), from any applicable requirement for the disclosure to unauthorized persons of classified information … [read more]

The United States has the world's greatest public lands. The National Park System, established in 1916, protects some of America's most beautiful and essential natural resources. Our parks connect Americans with their land, giving us a common landscape and shared national treasures. With more than 80 million acres, these majestic … [read more]

Since its inception, this Nation has relied upon courageous young men and women to fight willingly for our country's ideals. Time and again, these men and women have secured America's liberty and prosperity. In defense of freedom and the values Americans hold sacred, many have paid the ultimate sacrifice. Over … [read more]

Pursuant to section 9001(b) of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-79), I hereby determine and certify to the Congress that the application to India and Pakistan of the sanctions and prohibitions contained in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (G) of section 102(b)(2) of the Arms Export Control … [read more]

For more than 30 years, the United States has annually celebrated the rich history and cultural traditions of our Nation's Hispanic American people. National Hispanic Heritage Month provides us an opportunity to express deep appreciation to Hispanic Americans for their countless contributions to our society and to pay tribute again … [read more]

For more than a century, our Nation's Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have played a vital role in providing opportunities for excellence in higher education to millions of African American students. Throughout their history, these institutions of higher learning persevered in the face of many obstacles, offering university degrees … [read more]

Strong families make a strong America. Responsible, caring, and involved parenting dramatically affects the direction of a child's life and fundamentally influences the well-being of society as a whole. To help ensure a bright future for our children and for our Nation, we must expand our efforts to strengthen and … [read more]

The noble ideals that became our Nation's constitutional foundation were formed over two centuries ago in the hearts of courageous patriots who risked their lives in the name of liberty and justice. Throughout our history, American patriots have risen to answer the call when the enemies of freedom have jeopardized … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by 49 U.S.C. 44302, et seq ., I hereby: You are directed to bring this determination immediately to the attention of all air carriers within the meaning of 49 U.S.C. 40102(2), and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register . … [read more]

In accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency declared by President Clinton on September 26, 1993, by Executive Order 12865, to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 101 of the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (Public Law 107-42) (the “Act”), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the … [read more]

1. Section 503(c)(2)(C) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(C)), provides that a country that is no longer treated as a beneficiary developing country with respect to an eligible article for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) because imports of the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to extend the display of the flag at half-staff as a mark of respect for the victims of the terrorist attacks on Tuesday, … [read more]

Our Nation's agriculture industry represents 13 percent of our economy and remains central to our prosperity at home and our competitiveness abroad. At the core of this industry are countless dedicated farmers and ranchers working to produce food stuffs at a level of efficiency and quality unrivaled around the globe. … [read more]

As the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia began working on what would become the United States Constitution, they grasped that a great democracy must be built on the twin foundations of national consent to a Federal Government and respect for individual rights. After more than two centuries … [read more]

More than three million minority business owners across the United States are helping to build a stronger America. These hardworking men and women contribute everyday to the economic development of their communities by creating jobs and other opportunities for their neighbors. Minority business entrepreneurs represent the best of the American … [read more]

A national emergency exists by reason of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, and the Pentagon, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on the United States. NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue … [read more]

As a mark of respect for those killed by the heinous acts of violence perpetrated by faceless cowards upon the people and the freedom of the United States on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 12, 2000 (65 Fed. Reg. 55883), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2001. I hereby determine … [read more]

On Tuesday morning, September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked America in a series of despicable acts of war. They hijacked four passenger jets, crashed two of them into the World Trade Center's twin towers, and a third into the Headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense at the Pentagon, causing great … [read more]

The United States has grown strong and vibrant because of its diversity and common values. Representing different religions, cultures, ethnic groups, and backgrounds, our citizens have laid the foundation for our country's remarkable achievements. As a Nation, we celebrate those achievements and look forward to new challenges. At the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Title III (Foreign Military Financing) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001, as enacted in Public Law 106-429 (Title III), I hereby direct the drawdown of … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Protocol Amending the Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Kingdom of Morocco Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy signed at Washington on May 30, 1980, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the … [read more]

Ovarian cancer, the deadliest of the gynecologic cancers, is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Experts predict that more than 23,000 cases will be diagnosed in 2001, with an estimated 13,900 women dying from the disease this year. Ovarian cancer is very treatable … [read more]

Women's Equality Day marks the anniversary of women's enfranchisement and a pivotal victory for women's rights. Our Nation recognized a woman's right to vote with the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920, but the roots of the women's rights movement go back to at least 80 years earlier. In … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and consistent with Title IX of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-79), I hereby waive the application of the restrictions contained in sections 101 and 102 of the Arms Export Control Act, as … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $27 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet unexpected urgent … [read more]

On August 2, 1990, by Executive Order 12722, President Bush declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Iraq. By Executive Orders 12722 of August … [read more]

The sounds of war thundered as a furious struggle took place 51 years ago in a country unknown to many Americans. The battleground that was Korea in the years 1950 to 1953 tested the resolve, courage, and commitment of an America barely 5 years beyond the tremendous sacrifices of World … [read more]

Being a parent is the most important job in the world. As we hold a newborn in our arms or embrace an older adopted child, the promise we make in our hearts to love, protect, and nurture our children stays with us and with them forever. We are eternally linked … [read more]

The 21st century must become the “Century of Democracy.” Democracy and freedom have taken root across the globe, and the United States will continue to stand for greater consolidation of pluralism and religious freedom, wider access to information, and respect for human rights and for the rule of law. Our … [read more]

Pursuant to section 402(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-618, January 3, 1975; 88 Stat. 1978) as amended (the “Act”), I determine that a waiver by Executive Order of the application of subsections (a) and (b) of section 402 of the Act with respect to the Republic … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 614(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2364(a)(1) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is important to the security interests of the United States to furnish up to $20 million in funds made available under … [read more]

Throughout the campaign and in my Budget, I have called for “active, but limited” Government: one that empowers States, cities, and citizens to make decisions; ensures results through accountability; and promotes innovation through competition. Thus, if reform is to help the Federal Government adapt to a rapidly changing world, its … [read more]

1. Sections 501 and 502 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2461 and 2462), authorize the President to designate countries as beneficiary developing countries for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). 2. Section 503(c)(2)(A) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)) … [read more]

America's rich musical heritage reflects the diversity of our people. Among many influences, the cultural traditions brought to this land from Africa more than four centuries ago and the remarkable musical achievements of African Americans since then have strongly and unmistakably improved the sound of American music. From historical burdens … [read more]

On July 4, 1999, the President issued Executive Order 13129, “Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions with the Taliban,” to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by the actions and policies of the Taliban in Afghanistan. The order … [read more]

The United States has a vital interest in assuring peace and stability in Europe. In the Western Balkans, the United States is engaged, together with North Atlantic Treaty Organization Allies, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, United Nations missions, the European Union, and other international organizations in an … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2431 et seq. ) (the “Trade Act”), I determine, pursuant to section 405(a) of the Trade Act (19 U.S.C. 2435(a)), that the “Agreement Between the United States of America and the Socialist Republic … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Americans celebrate Father's Day as a unique time to reflect on the importance of fathers and to honor their vital role in the lives of children. For those who have been blessed with our own families, this day also provides an opportunity to reaffirm our commitment to being the best … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, President Clinton issued Executive Order 13159 (the “Order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereinafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

During Great Outdoors Week, our Nation celebrates the beauty and majesty of the great outdoors. This occasion allows Americans to reflect on the role our parks, forests, wildlife refuges, recreation areas, and other public lands and waters play in our lives. We also acknowledge how this wonderful shared legacy would … [read more]

On June 14, 2001, Americans will observe the 224th birthday of the flag of the United States of America. This special day provides a time for our Nation to reflect on our flag's rich history and its meaning to Americans and people around the world. The Continental Congress adopted the … [read more]

All of America's service personnel and veterans deserve our gratitude, and it is fitting to pay tribute to the United States Asiatic Fleet. The United States Navy's presence in the Far East dates to 1822. The Asiatic Fleet was formed in 1902, reestablished in 1910, and continued to serve into … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the “Act”), I determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted by section 402 of the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the “Act”), I determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the Act, 19 U.S.C. 2432(d)(1), that the further extension of the waiver authority granted by section 402 of the … [read more]

Our children, who are today dreaming big dreams and who are filled with hope, will someday serve as leaders in government, industry, education, and the arts. For the good of our country and its continued progress and advancement, we must strive to give all young Americans the best possible start … [read more]

Section 6 of the Bus Regulatory Reform Act of 1982 imposed a moratorium on the issuance of certificates or permits to motor carriers domiciled in, or owned or controlled by, persons of a contiguous foreign country, and authorized the President to modify the moratorium. The Interstate Commerce Commission Termination Act … [read more]

1. On July 7, 1999, President Clinton issued Proclamation 7208, which implemented action of a type described in section 203(a)(3) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (19 U.S.C. 2253(a)(3)) (the “Trade Act”), with respect to imports of fresh, chilled, or frozen lamb meat, provided for in subheadings 0204.10.00, … [read more]

“Humility must always be the portion of any man who receives acclaim earned in the blood of his followers and the sacrifices of his friends.” These words, spoken by General Dwight D. Eisenhower following Germany's surrender in 1945, paid tribute to his fallen comrades as he humbly acknowledged that their … [read more]

By the authority vested in my by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the authority vested in me under section 703 of the Security Assistance Act of 2000 … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the functions conferred upon the President by the Latin American Development Act of 1960, … [read more]

In accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency declared on May 30, 1992, with respect to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (the “FRY (S&M)”), as expanded on October 25, 1994, in response to … [read more]

Throughout our history, America's economic prosperity has been closely tied to its maritime geography. From indigenous peoples navigating our majestic rivers to colonists settling along the New World's eastern shores, natives and immigrants alike have relied on the sea and our bountiful inland waterways for commerce and security. In colonial … [read more]

One of the most dramatic, damaging, and potentially deadly weather events is a hurricane. Each year on average, six hurricanes develop over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico. Many of these remain over the ocean with little or no impact on the continental United States. Unfortunately, though, … [read more]

Over 70 million recreational boaters enjoy our Nation's waters, and the national economic impact of recreational boating is more than $25 billion each year. This year marks the 30th anniversary of the enactment of the Federal Boat Safety Act. This legislation, designed to improve boating safety and to foster greater … [read more]

Trade has an extraordinary impact on our Nation's economic strength and can be a powerful force for good in the world. This year's World Trade Week, observed in communities across the country, will showcase the value of trade to all our citizens. Exports have accounted for almost one-quarter of the … [read more]

Pursuant to section 5(c) of the Anglo-Irish Agreement Support Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-415), as amended in section 2811 of the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in Public Law 105-277), I hereby certify that I am satisfied that: (1) the Board of the International … [read more]

As provided under section 610 of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Other Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001, as contained in the Consolidated Appropriations Act for FY 2001, Public Law 196-553, I hereby determine, based on all information available to the United States Government, that the … [read more]

For thousands of years, man has been utilizing and modifying biological processes to improve man's quality of life. Scientific advances have enabled biotechnology to play an increasingly large role in the development of new products that enhance all areas of our lives. In the battle against disease, our ever-increasing knowledge … [read more]

America's achievements in transportation have helped lay the foundation for our strength and prosperity. As our Nation moves forward into the 21st century, we celebrate how modern transportation has transformed the world and recognize the many men and women who have contributed to its development and advancement. Whether traveling by … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

Each day, law enforcement officers encounter grave risk to protect the rights and freedoms we enjoy as Americans. Their commitment and sacrifice make our streets safer, our neighborhoods stronger, and our families more secure. Police Week provides an opportunity to recognize the selfless dedication of the brave men and women … [read more]

Since its founding in Great Britain in 1865, the Salvation Army has provided humanitarian relief and spiritual guidance to people throughout the world. Its members continue its compassionate tradition of helping wherever there is hunger, disease, destitution, and spiritual need. Through countless acts of service, members of the Salvation Army … [read more]

No matter what direction life takes us, a mother's love and guidance are a tremendous blessing that help us to grow up as stable, responsible, and caring individuals. As nurturers, teachers, and protectors, mothers' unconditional affection helps their children to blossom into mature adults. In partnership with fathers, mothers play … [read more]

As we move into the 21st century, the United States continues to greatly benefit from the contributions of its diverse citizenry. Among those who have influenced our country, Asian/Pacific Americans merit special recognition. Their achievements have greatly enriched our quality of life and have helped to determine the course of … [read more]

In cities, towns, and communities across the United States, older Americans make countless contributions to the life of our Nation. Each year, during the month of May, Americans acknowledge in a special way the contributions of older Americans to our society. This year's theme, “The Many Faces of Aging,” calls … [read more]

Small business owners who work long hours, juggling family and career responsibilities and serving as community volunteers, are integral to our country's prosperity and to the vibrancy of our communities. These entrepreneurs are fundamental to our economy. Through the opportunities offered by the men and women who own and operate … [read more]

This year marks the 44th commemoration of May 1 as Law Day, U.S.A., a national day of observance to celebrate our legal heritage. On this occasion, we reflect on the role our legal system plays in the lives of every American and how the freedoms we enjoy would not be … [read more]

Turning to prayer in times of joy and celebration, strife and tragedy is an integral part of our national heritage. When the first settlers landed on the rocky shores of the New World, they celebrated with prayer, and the practice has continued through our history. In 1775, the Continental Congress … [read more]

Two hundred and twenty-five years ago, America's founders faced a decisive crossroads. Thomas Jefferson later remembered “the bold and doubtful election we were to make for our country, between submission or the sword.” They chose the sword, and a Nation was born. Today, we celebrate our loyalty to this country … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 538(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001, Public Law 106-429, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

The United States boasts an incredible wealth of natural beauty. From rugged coastlines and thick forests to arid deserts and canyons, our diverse landscapes represent a treasured heritage of which all Americans can be proud. Our country's commitment to the conservation of its open spaces runs deep. The Nation founded … [read more]

America is blessed with millions of individuals of good will and good works who play significant roles in making positive change in the lives of others. While Government has great responsibilities for public safety and public health, for civil rights and common schools, compassion is the work of a Nation. … [read more]

Our Nation's Founding Fathers overcame enormous obstacles to establish a system of government unequaled in history. We are the beneficiaries of their sacrifice, courage, and honor. But among these legendary patriots, Thomas Jefferson remains unique as the one who articulated the essential values and principles of American liberty and freedom. … [read more]

Every day, Americans are making progress both in the fight against crime and in the effort to ensure fair and compassionate treatment of victims and their families. Dedicated volunteers, health care professionals, counselors, and law enforcement personnel in communities large and small are raising the public's awareness that victims have … [read more]

Today, we recognize Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.), the largest and most widely known substance abuse prevention and anti-violence curriculum in America. For over 18 years, D.A.R.E. has brought specially trained community police officers into America's classrooms to teach children how to resist destructive peer pressure and to live productive … [read more]

Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading “Policy Toward Burma” in section 570(d) of the Fiscal Year 1997 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment concerning: You are hereby authorized and … [read more]

Americans have long cherished our identity as a Nation of immigrants. The shared values and aspirations of those who have come to America's shores have helped to shape our culture, laws, and government. The Jewish community has played a vital role in our Nation's history, tracing back to colonial times. … [read more]

Organ and tissue transplantation is one of the most significant advances in medicine. Wonderful success stories give hope to people of all ages, and donors and their families deserve our deepest gratitude. Their extraordinary generosity and foresight have given countless individuals the opportunity to rear a family, hold a job, … [read more]

This year on Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, the nations of the Americas celebrate the progress we have made toward our collective goal of a hemisphere united in freedom and democracy. The United States and our neighboring countries in the Western Hemisphere have a long history of … [read more]

From our earliest beginnings as a Nation, America has been blessed with citizens who have been willing to fight and die to preserve our shared ideals. We owe our freedom to men and women who have responded heroically to the call of patriotic duty. In times of peace and war, … [read more]

In 2001, an estimated 1.2 million new cases of cancer will occur, and more than half a million individuals will die from the disease. Standing alone, the figures are discouraging. However, a recent decline in the rates of new cases, as well as cancer-related deaths, offers us hope. The 5-year … [read more]

Every child deserves to live in a safe, permanent, and caring family. Regrettably, abuse and neglect continue to threaten the well-being of many young Americans. Each year, more than 800,000 confirmed incidents of maltreatment of children and more than 1,000 abuse-related child fatalities plague our country. We can, and must, … [read more]

The Mexico City Policy announced by President Reagan in 1984 required foreign nongovernmental organizations to agree as a condition of their receipt of Federal funds for family planning activities that such organizations would neither perform nor actively promote abortion as a method of family planning in other nations. This policy … [read more]

With the dawn of a new century, America's youth face a world of nearly unlimited possibilities. New advances in technology, medicine, and science offer the potential for great progress. We must ensure that every child has the technical skills needed to pursue success in their respective fields. However, they also … [read more]

This week marks the 89th anniversary of the founding of the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Juliette Gordon Low founded the organization as a way to give girls greater opportunities to develop skills and to mentor them in knowledge and character. Promoting leadership and altruism, the Girl … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 490 (b) (1) (A) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine and certify that the following major illicit drug producing and/or major illicit drug transit countries have cooperated fully with the United States, … [read more]

Last year, approximately 130,000 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed in the United States. This is a startling number. Late diagnosis is one reason why colorectal cancer, cancer of the colon and rectum, is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths for Americans. The disease strikes men and women … [read more]

As part of our regular health routine, we often overlook vision. Good vision affects how we work, communicate, and learn. According to the Department of Health and Human Services, about 80 million Americans suffer from potentially blinding eye diseases, 3 million have low vision, and 200,000 more are severely visually … [read more]

Our democratic system of government traces its earliest roots back to ancient Greece. The leaders of the Revolution and the Framers of the Constitution often drew inspiration from Athenian lawgivers and philosophers and called the Greek example to mind as they sought to build the new nation on the foundations … [read more]

The generous spirit of the American people has given this country a great and long-standing tradition of voluntary service. During the past four decades, the members of the Peace Corps have carried on that tradition with dramatic and far-reaching effect. Established in 1961, the Peace Corps has brought a wealth … [read more]

In 1845, journalist and author Margaret Fuller laid out her hope for the future of this Nation's women: “We would have every arbitrary barrier thrown down. We would have every path laid open to women as freely as to men. If you ask me what offices they may fill, I … [read more]

National Poison Prevention Week alerts Americans to the dangers of accidental childhood poisonings and to the measures that help prevent poisonings. During the 40 years since the Congress authorized the annual proclamation of National Poison Prevention Week, our Nation has seen a dramatic decrease in deaths from childhood poisoning. In … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the authority vested in me under section 1307 of the Floyd D. Spence … [read more]

The American Red Cross was founded in 1881 by Clara Barton, a woman selflessly devoted to the needs of humanity. Many of the Red Cross's guiding principles—compassion, courage, character, and civic duty—are timeless ideals shared by the people of the United States. Chartered and authorized by the Congress to act … [read more]

Beginning from the earliest years of settlement, millions of Ireland's people have emigrated to America's shores. This immigration reached a particular peak during the terrible years of the Great Famine more than 150 years ago. Irish immigrants, from professionals to laborers, made an enormous contribution to the building of our … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, President Clinton declared a national emergency to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Government of Cuba of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international air space north of Cuba. In July … [read more]

The year 2001 once seemed so distant that it became a symbol of science fiction. But today, researchers studying heart and other cardiovascular diseases have made 2001 a year when science rivals fiction. Only 50 years ago, Americans were acknowledged to be suffering from an epidemic of heart disease. So … [read more]

Burn injuries are a serious problem in the United States. Each year, over 3,000 people die and 16,000 are injured by fires that start in the home. These fires cost the Nation over $18 billion. Tragically, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities are those most likely to become victims … [read more]

More Americans than ever are realizing the American dream of homeownership. At the same time, an increasing number of homeowners are living the nightmare of overwhelming debt and home foreclosure resulting from fraudulent lending practices. Subprime lending—the extension of high-rate, high-fee loans to people considered to be high-risk borrowers—has grown … [read more]

In 1915, Carter Godwin Woodson, the father of Black history, founded the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History. Each February, the Association proposes a theme to guide the celebration of National African American History Month. For this year, the Association has chosen “Creating and Defining the African-American … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2 (c) (1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601 (c) (1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest to make up to $22 million from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund available to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and consistent with title IX of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2000 (Public Law 106-79), I hereby waive the application of the restrictions contained in sections 101 and 102 of the Arms Export Control Act, as … [read more]

On the north tip of Governors Island, between the confluence of the Hudson and Eastern Rivers, Governors Island National Monument served as an outpost to protect New York City from sea attack. The monument, part of a larger 1985 National Historic Landmark District designation, contains two important historical objects, Castle … [read more]

Nearly 200 years ago, on March 4, 1801, our young Nation celebrated an important milestone in its history, the first transfer of power between political parties, as Thomas Jefferson took the oath of office as President. On this bicentennial of that event, we pause to remember and give thanks to … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (Title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate countries listed in section 107 of the AGOA (19 … [read more]

1. On December 17, 1992, the Governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “NAFTA Implementation Act”) (19 U.S.C. … [read more]

Each year we commemorate the anniversary of the religious freedom statute adopted by the Virginia legislature in 1786. This statute, which reflects the wisdom and foresight of its author, Thomas Jefferson, and its cosponsor, James Madison, became the model for the First Amendment to our Constitution, and it has had … [read more]

Buck Island Reef National Monument was established on December 28, 1961 (Presidential Proclamation 3443), just north of St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, for the purpose of protecting Buck Island and its adjoining shoals, rocks, and undersea coral reef formations. Considered one of the finest marine gardens in the … [read more]

Full of natural splendor and rich in human history, the majestic grasslands and stark ridges in the Carrizo Plain National Monument contain exceptional objects of scientific and historic interest. Since the mid-1800s, large portions of the grasslands that once spanned the entire four hundred mile expanse of California's nearby San … [read more]

Located on the Pajarito Plateau in north central New Mexico, the Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument is a remarkable outdoor laboratory, offering an opportunity to observe, study, and experience the geologic processes that shape natural landscapes, as well as other cultural and biological objects of interest. The area is rich … [read more]

The Minidoka Internment National Monument is a unique and irreplaceable historical resource which protects historic structures and objects that provide opportunities for public education and interpretation of an important chapter in American history—the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed … [read more]

Pompeys Pillar National Monument is a massive sandstone outcrop that rises from an almost two-acre base on the banks of the Yellowstone River 150 feet toward Montana's Big Sky, east of Billings. The monument's premier location at a natural ford in the Yellowstone River, and its geologic distinction as the … [read more]

The Sonoran Desert National Monument is a magnificent example of untrammeled Sonoran desert landscape. The area encompasses a functioning desert ecosystem with an extraordinary array of biological, scientific, and historic resources. The most biologically diverse of the North American deserts, the monument consists of distinct mountain ranges separated by wide … [read more]

The Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument contains a spectacular array of biological, geological, and historical objects of interest. From Fort Benton upstream into the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, the monument spans 149 miles of the Upper Missouri River, the adjacent Breaks country, and portions of Arrow Creek, … [read more]

The Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, in the submerged lands off the island of St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands, contains all the elements of a Caribbean tropical marine ecosystem. This designation furthers the protection of the scientific objects included in the Virgin Islands National Park, created in … [read more]

Seventy-two years ago, Martin Luther King, Jr., was born into a sharply divided Nation, a place where the color of a child's skin too often determined that child's destiny. America was a place where segregation and discrimination put limits on a black child's dreams, opportunities, and future. Dr. King led … [read more]

Pursuant to section 572(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001, (the ``Act'') (Public Law 106-429), I hereby certify that: (1) the parties to the Agreed Framework have taken and continue to take demonstrable steps to implement the Joint Declaration on Denuclearization of the Korean … [read more]

Pursuant to section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001 (Public Law 106-429), I hereby certify that withholding from international financial institutions and other international organizations and programs funds appropriated or otherwise made available pursuant to that Act is contrary to the national interest. … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws of the United States, including section 1511 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 (Public Law 103-160), I hereby certify to the Congress that I have determined that the waiver of the application of subsections 1511(b) and … [read more]

On January 7, 1986, by Executive Order 12543, President Reagan declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Libya. On January 8, 1986, by Executive … [read more]

1. The Republic of Georgia (Georgia) has made progress, since its emergence from communism, toward democratic rule and the creation of a free market economy. Georgia has also made considerable progress toward respecting fundamental human rights consistent with the objectives of title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 (the … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $33 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet the unexpected … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Latest Readers

@JURISTnews

Support JURIST

We rely on our readers to keep JURIST running

 Donate now!

© Copyright JURIST Legal News and Research Services, Inc., 2013.