A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
181 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2002

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, including under section 5 of the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338) (“the Act”), I hereby determine that each of the following groups is a democratic oppostion organization and that each satisfies the criteria set … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President of the United States, including under sections 4(a)(2) and 5(a) of the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338) (the “Act”), and consistent with Presidential Determination 99-13, I hereby direct the furnishing of up to $92 million in defense articles … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading “Policy toward Burma” in section 570(d) of the Fiscal Year 1997 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment concerning: I understand the attached report … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, Americans have contributed to important technological breakthroughs that have improved the quality of life for countless individuals. On December 17, 1903, near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Orville and Wilbur Wright achieved the first successfully sustained and controlled flight with a heavier-than-air, engine-powered aircraft. In the 99 … [read more]

America's commitment to individual freedom and democracy provides the foundation for our society. As a Nation, we cherish the values of free speech, equal justice, and religious tolerance, and we steadfastly oppose the forces of cruelty, injustice, and tyranny. Since the founding of our country, the Bill of Rights has … [read more]

Early on a quiet Sunday morning on December 7, 1941, aircraft of the Empire of Japan, without provocation or warning, attacked the United States forces at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. More than 2,400 Americans died that day and another 1,100 were wounded, in what was the start of a long and … [read more]

Drunk and drugged driving threatens the safety of millions of Americans. Reducing the incidence of impaired driving remains one of our Nation's greatest challenges. As we gather with family and friends to celebrate this holiday season, I urge all Americans to observe National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month by … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (“the Act”) (Public Law 107-228), and pursuant to section 603 of that Act, regarding noncompliance by the PLO and the Palestinian Authority with certain commitments, I hereby impose the sanction set out in … [read more]

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has taken the lives of more than 20 million people and is projected to take millions more. On World AIDS Day, countries around the world are united to support the individuals, families, and communities affected by this disease, and to renew our commitment to preventing the spread … [read more]

Families provide a loving environment where children can flourish; and they help ensure that cultural traditions and timeless values are passed on to future generations. During National Family Week, we reaffirm the importance of families as a vital source of strength, confidence, and compassion for all of our citizens. Strong … [read more]

Section 6 of the Bus Regulatory Reform Act of 1982, Public Law 97-261, 96 Stat. 1103, imposed a moratorium on the issuance of certificates or permits to motor carriers domiciled in, or owned or controlled by persons of, a contiguous foreign country and authorized the President to modify the moratorium. … [read more]

In celebration of Thanksgiving Day 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote, “Rarely has any people enjoyed greater prosperity than we are now enjoying. For this we render heartfelt and solemn thanks to the Giver of Good; and we seek to praise Him—not by words only—but by deeds, by the way in … [read more]

Agriculture has always been a cornerstone of our Nation's way of life. As wise stewards and innovative entrepreneurs, our dedicated farmers and ranchers improve our well-being by working to ensure a healthy and abundant agricultural supply. To succeed in this important enterprise, our farmers rely on essential partnerships with urban … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President under the Constitution and laws of the United States of America and pursuant to the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq., I hereby order that: Section 1. Order of Succession. During any period when both the Director of … [read more]

Americans are dedicated to protecting our land, ensuring that our air is clean, and preserving the purity of our water. To help fulfill these responsibilities, government, businesses, community organizations, and every citizen must work together to serve as good stewards of all of our natural resources. On America Recycles Day, … [read more]

1. Section 3107 of the Trade Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-210) amended the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (Title II of the Trade Act of 2000, Public Law 106-200) (CBERA) to modify the type and quantity of textile and apparel articles eligible for the preferential tariff treatment now accorded … [read more]

On World Freedom Day, the United States joins with the nations of the world that are dedicated to liberty and democratic values in commemorating the fall of the Berlin Wall, which occurred on November 9, 1989. As we remember this historic event, we renew our commitment to advancing democracy, peace, … [read more]

Our National Guard and Reserve units comprise 38 percent of America's military forces, and we are grateful for the commitment of these brave men and women. During National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, we pay tribute to those serving our Nation in the National Guard and Reserve, … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress, consistent with section 2104(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 2002 (19 U.S.C. 3804(a)(1)), of my intention to enter into negotations on a Free Trade Agreement with Australia. You are also authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in theFederal Register . … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, President Clinton declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

America was founded on the principles of liberty, opportunity, and justice for all, and on Veterans Day we recognize the men and women of our Armed Forces who have valiantly defended these values throughout our Nation's history. These remarkable individuals have helped to make our Nation secure and to advance … [read more]

For 100 years, the West Wing of the White House has served as the workplace of the President of the United States and his staff. Now housing the Oval Office, the Roosevelt Room, Cabinet Room, offices of the President's senior staff, and the James C. Brady Press Briefing Room, the … [read more]

Every year, thousands of American families are blessed by adoption. Whether through domestic or international adoption or through the adoption of children from foster care, the love of compassionate families embraces children of all ages and from every background. During National Adoption Month, we recognize the heartfelt commitment of these … [read more]

During American Indian Heritage Month, we celebrate the rich cultural traditions and proud ancestry of American Indians and Alaska Natives, and we recognize the vital contributions these groups have made to the strength and diversity of our society. American Indians and Alaska Natives have played a central role in our … [read more]

Hospice organizations provide people who are near the end of their lives with family-centered, quality care, that emphasizes compassion, independence, respect, and dignity. During National Hospice Month, our Nation pays tribute to hospice care and the persons and organizations involved with it, by recognizing and honoring its value and importance … [read more]

Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading ``Policy Toward Burma'' in section 570(d) of the Fiscal Year 1997 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment concerning: You are hereby authorized and … [read more]

1. Section 3103 of the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (title XXXI of the Trade Act of 2002, Public Law 107-210) (ATPDEA) amended section 204(b) of the Andean Trade Preference Act (19 U.S.C. 3203(b)) (ATPA) to provide that certain preferential tariff treatment may be provided to eligible articles … [read more]

Alzheimer's Disease robs its victims of their independence and identity and greatly affects the lives of their loved ones. This disease and other forms of dementia afflict approximately 50 percent of Americans age 85 and older. Due to the rapid growth of our elderly population, experts expect that the number … [read more]

Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects approximately 17 million Americans. During National Diabetes Month, we renew our commitment to preventing and eradicating this illness. Diabetes interferes with the body's ability to process sugars normally and can lead to adverse complications of the eyes, heart, kidneys, or nerves. There are … [read more]

One of our most important responsibilities as citizens is to give back to our communities. Individuals who care for loved ones in their homes demonstrate the compassionate spirit of America. During National Family Caregivers Month, we honor these individuals who bring hope and comfort to their fellow citizens in need. … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

The United Nations was founded 57 years ago to improve our global community by strengthening the ties among member nations through improved communication, expanded understanding, and enhanced security. On United Nations Day, America joins the world in commemorating the founding of this important international organization and recognizing the profound impact … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2003 … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, Public Law 107-115, as provided for in the Joint Resolution Making Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2003, and for other purposes, Public Law 107-240. I hereby determine … [read more]

President Theodore Roosevelt once said that, “Character, in the long run, is the decisive factor in the life of an individual and of nations alike.” During National Character Counts Week, Americans reaffirm our dedication to promoting good character and upholding the timeless virtues that make our Nation strong. Our Founding … [read more]

America's forests are one of our greatest natural resources. They offer majestic beauty and fabulous recreational opportunities for all Americans to enjoy. They also are an important source of materials that help our Nation's economy to grow and flourish. By observing National Forest Products Week, we recognize the countless ways … [read more]

On October 18, 2002, our Nation marks the 30th anniversary of the Clean Water Act and begins the Observance of the Year of Clean Water. This landmark environmental legislation has been central to the important progress we have made as a Nation in improving the quality of our drinking water … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common fatal genetic diseases in the United States. During this week, we renew our commitment to fighting this deadly disease that affects an estimated 30,000 American men, women, and children. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that can be passed on directly from … [read more]

The future success of our Nation depends on our children's healthy development. Since 1946, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) has made important contributions to the well-being of our school children. As part of the NSLP, more than 96,000 schools and residential childcare institutions serve more than 27 million children … [read more]

The white cane is a powerful symbol of independence and opportunity for visually impaired persons. It is also an essential tool for increasing mobility and productivity for those who are blind as well as those who suffer from severe visual impairment. On White Cane Safety Day, our Nation renews its … [read more]

Americans celebrate our friendship and common commitment to freedom with the people of Poland each year on October 11, when we honor Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. As a brave Polish patriot, General Pulaski made the ultimate sacrifice for our Nation, giving his life … [read more]

You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress, pursuant to section 2104(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 2002 (19 U.S.C. 3804(a)(1)), of my intention to enter into negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement with the five member countries of the Southern African Customs Union (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, … [read more]

In August 1492, Christopher Columbus sailed from Palos, Spain, embarking on a westward voyage and intending to establish a new trade route from Spain to the Far East. With three ships and a crew of approximately 100 men, he journeyed across the Atlantic Ocean. Instead of finding a new route … [read more]

More than 1,000 years ago, Leif Erikson and his crew journeyed across the Atlantic seeking unknown lands. Their pioneering spirit of courage, determination, and discovery helped to open the world to new exploration and unprecedented development. Each October, we join our friends in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland in … [read more]

Every year, fires needlessly take lives and destroy homes, natural habitats, and livelihoods. This year, as we observe Fire Prevention Week, I ask all citizens to take responsible steps to prevent fires at home and outdoors and to ensure that safety and emergency plans are in place and in practice. … [read more]

On Child Health Day, we renew our commitment to the well-being and safety of our children. Parents, families, teachers, and neighbors all play important roles in preparing children to face life's physical, spiritual, intellectual, and emotional demands. For the future of our country, we must work together to provide our … [read more]

As the oldest and longest-lived democracy in the world, our Nation is committed to promoting freedom, protecting liberty, and pursuing peace. For over 225 years, America has been a place where people have come to realize their dreams and enjoy the blessings of religious tolerance and individual rights. In 1683, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (FAA), I hereby determine it is necessary for the purposes of the FAA that the $34 million in FY 2002 International Organizations … [read more]

During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we recognize the progress being made towards a cure for this disease, which robs so many women of their health and, in too many cases, their lives. This year, an estimated 203,000 American women will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and almost 40,000 will … [read more]

All of our citizens should have the opportunity to live and work with dignity and freedom. Every October, we observe National Disability Employment Awareness Month, to recognize the talents, skills, and dedication of disabled Americans who are a vital part of our workforce. During this month, we reaffirm our commitment … [read more]

Domestic violence in America is intolerable and must be stopped. According to the 2000 National Crime Victimization Survey, almost 700,000 incidents of violence between partners were documented in our Nation, and thousands more go unreported. And in the past quarter century, almost 57,000 Americans were murdered by a partner. Children … [read more]

Throughout our rich history, many of our Nation's dedicated military men and women have served and sacrificed their lives to secure our country, defend our freedoms, and preserve the values of our democracy. Many of these heroes fell in battle, leaving behind family, friends, and loved ones who grieve their … [read more]

You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress pursuant to section 2104(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 2002 (19 U.S.C. 3804(a)(1)), of my intention to enter into negotiations on a Free Trade Agreement with the Kingdom of Morocco and a Free Trade Agreement with Central American Countries. You are … [read more]

In accordance with the provisions of section 1.4 of Executive Order 12958 of April 17, 1995, entitled “Classified National Security Information,” I hereby designate the Secretary of Agriculture to classify information originally as “Secret.” Any delegation of this authority shall be in accordance with section 1.4(c) of Executive Order 12958. … [read more]

Throughout American history, many men and women have bravely served in our military and sacrificed much to preserve our country and protect the democratic ideals that make our Nation a beacon of hope. Some of those who answered the call to service were captured in conflict and imprisoned by our … [read more]

America's character begins in the home, where children learn proper standards of conduct, principled values, and the importance of service. Families provide children the encouragement, support, and love they need to become confident, compassionate, and successful members of society. We must work together to promote and preserve the health and … [read more]

Entrepreneurs help make America strong and are essential to our economic success. Their talent, skill, and hard work have helped sustain our Nation since its founding; and their disciplined work ethic and capacity for innovation reflect the true character of our country. During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we celebrate our … [read more]

In accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency declared by the President on September 26, 1993, by Executive Order 12865, to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

America's cultural diversity has always been a great strength of our Nation. The Hispanic-American community has a long and important history of commitment to our Nation's core values, and the contributions of this community have helped make our country great. During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we celebrate the many achievements … [read more]

American farm and ranch families embody our Nation's values of hard work, love of the land, and love of country. Farming not only feeds our country but increasingly provides more of our Nation's energy needs. The success of America's farmers and ranchers is essential to our economy, and helping to … [read more]

America's Historically Black Colleges and Universities are a vital part of our Nation's higher education system. During National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we renew our dedication to these institutions and strengthen our commitment to securing educational freedom, opportunity, and access for every American. Emerging more than a century … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 12, 2001 (66 Fed. Reg. 47943), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading with the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2002. I hereby determine … [read more]

In accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, and the Pentagon, and … [read more]

Drug and alcohol abuse destroys the hopes of men, women, and young people and takes a terrible toll on society. Addiction destroys the lives of countless Americans, shatters families, and threatens the safety of our neighborhoods. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month provides an important opportunity to promote the … [read more]

On this first observance of Patriot Day, we remember and honor those who perished in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. We will not forget the events of that terrible morning nor will we forget how Americans responded in New York City, at the Pentagon, and in the skies … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $6.6 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for contributions to the … [read more]

During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, Americans renew their commitment to learning more about the causes of this deadly disease, so that we can detect it early and treat it effectively. Ovarian cancer continues to cause more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. It is estimated … [read more]

As we remember the tragic events of September 11, 2001, and the thousands of innocent lives lost on that day, we recall as well the outpouring of compassion and faith that swept our Nation in the face of the evil done that day. In designating September 6-8 as National Days … [read more]

1. Section 503(c)(2)(C) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(C)), provides that a country that is no longer treated as a beneficiary developing country with respect to an eligible article may be redesignated as a beneficiary developing country with respect to such article … [read more]

1. On February 18, 2000, pursuant to section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2253), the President issued Proclamation 7274, which imposed additional duties on certain circular welded carbon quality line pipe (line pipe) provided for in subheadings 7306.10.10 and 7306.10.50 of … [read more]

Today, American women enjoy unprecedented opportunities in business, education, politics, and countless other aspects of our society. Historically, however, women suffered grave inequalities and were denied some of the most fundamental benefits of citizenship. Each year on August 26th, we mark the important anniversary of the day on which women … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including title III (Foreign Military Financing) of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115), I hereby direct the drawdown of defense articles and services … [read more]

America's community health centers are a vital part of our healthcare safety net, providing primary care services to uninsured, low-income families and individuals, regardless of their ability to pay. Community health centers ensure that all citizens have access to medical treatment and preventative care. Each year, community, migrant, public housing, … [read more]

The history of Airborne forces began after World War I, when Brigadier General William Mitchell first conceived the idea of parachuting troops into combat. Eventually, under the leadership of Major William Lee at Fort Benning, Georgia, members of the Parachute Test Platoon pioneered methods of combat jumping in 1940. In … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 302 of the 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States (Public Law 107-206), I hereby certify that waiving the restrictions contained in subsection (d) of 22 U.S.C. 5952 and in section … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August 17, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authorities vested in me by section 610(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary for the purposes of the Act that $10.3 million appropriated to carry out chapter 1 of part I of the Act be … [read more]

On August 2, 1990, by Executive Order 12722, President Bush declared a national emergency with respect to Iraq pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Parenthood is a profound blessing, bringing with it responsibilities that are both challenging and rewarding. The care, dedication, and attention of parents are critical to their children's success. As they teach, guide, and nurture, parents help their children to realize their potential and achieve their dreams. Parents also play a … [read more]

For two centuries, the United States Patent Office has played a vital role in the scientific, technical, and economic development of our Nation by granting inventors patents for their inventions. As Abraham Lincoln once stated, patents “added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius.” The first Patent Act … [read more]

Fifty-two years ago, armed forces from North Korea shattered the peace as they crossed the 38th Parallel and invaded South Korea. A 22-country force assembled to face this Cold War challenge, and the majority of them were Americans. The brave men and women of this coalition fought courageously to defend … [read more]

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is one of the most compassionate and successful civil rights laws in American history. In the 12 years since President George H. W. Bush signed the ADA into law, more people with disabilities are participating fully in our society than ever before. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, it is hereby ordered that the Secretary of Commerce is designated and empowered to exercise, following consultations with the United States Trade Representative … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate the functions and authorities conferred upon the President by sections 2(d) and 2(f) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance … [read more]

The United States is proud to stand on the side of brave people everywhere who seek the same freedoms upon which our Nation was founded. Each year, during Captive Nations Week, we reaffirm our determination to work for freedom around the globe. Created against the backdrop of the Cold War, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(1) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that: (1) an unforeseen emergency exists that requires immediate military counterterrorism assistance to the Armed Forces of the Philippines; and (2) the emergency … [read more]

1. On March 5, 2002, pursuant to section 203 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2253), I issued Proclamation 7529, which imposed tariffs and a tariff-rate quota on certain steel products under subheadings 9903.72.30 through 9903.74.24 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the … [read more]

Nearly 200 years ago, President Thomas Jefferson sent an expedition westward to find and map a transcontinental water route to the Pacific Ocean. With approval from the Congress, Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark embarked on their legendary 3-year journey to explore the uncharted West. The expedition included 33 permanent … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, you are delegated the authority and assigned the responsibility of the President under section 124(b) of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-398). The authority … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Fathers play a unique and important role in the lives of their children. As mentor, protector, and provider, a father fundamentally influences the shape and direction of his or her child's character by giving love, care, discipline, and guidance. As we observe Father's Day, our Nation honors fatherhood and urges … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “Order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereinafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the “Act”), I determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the waiver authority granted by section 402 of the Act will substantially promote the objectives of section 402 of … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, Public Law 93-618, 88 Stat. 1978 (hereinafter the “Act”), I determine, pursuant to section 402(d)(1) of the waiver authority granted by section 402 of the Act will substantially promote the objectives of section 402 of … [read more]

During Great Outdoors Week, our Nation celebrates the wonderful legacy of our parks, forests, wildlife refuges, recreation areas, and other public lands and waters. Protection of many of these special places started with initiatives begun by President Theodore Roosevelt. He established a commitment to conservation that we continue today. President … [read more]

The American flag is a beacon of hope, a symbol of enduring freedom, and an emblem of unity. Many have given their lives in its defense, and countless men and women have worked to ensure that Old Glory continues to stand for the ideals of freedom, justice, and equal opportunity … [read more]

Children bring joy and challenge to the lives they touch. And as our next generation of leaders, they carry with them the hope of our Nation. From the excitement of watching a toddler take a first step to the satisfaction of seeing them mature into adulthood, we are blessed to … [read more]

Homeownership is an important part of the American Dream. As President, I am committed to helping many more Americans achieve that dream. A home provides shelter and a safe place where families can prosper and children can thrive. For many Americans, their home is an important financial investment, and it … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws and Constitution of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I hereby find that the furnishing of Defense articles and services to East … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws and Constitution of the United States, including sections 614(a)(2) and 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, I hereby determine that it is vital to the national security interests of the United States to provide up to … [read more]

America's diverse and extraordinary musical heritage reflects the remarkable cultural and artistic history of our Nation. From gospel, blues, and jazz to rock and roll, rap, and hip-hop, our Nation's musical landscape offers an astounding array of uniquely American styles. During Black Music Month, we celebrate a critically important part … [read more]

Our Nation's landscape contains thousands of bodies of water that offer endless opportunities for recreational boating and fishing. Every year, millions of Americans, including me, look forward to enjoying these popular pastimes. In addition to providing opportunities for recreation, fishing and boating play important roles in our Nation's economy. They … [read more]

In accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency declared on May 30, 1992, with respect to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (the “FRY (S&M)”), as expanded on October 25, 1994, in response to … [read more]

Our commercial maritime tradition dates back to the founding of our Nation; and it continues to play an important role today, moving passengers and freight, protecting our freedom, and linking our citizens to the world. Merchant mariners have served America with distinction throughout our history, but especially at critical moments. … [read more]

On May 25, 1979, 6-year old Etan Patz disappeared on his way to school in New York City. The ensuing search focused national attention on the tragedy of missing children, as well as the lack of resources and information available to help locate and recover missing children. Since that time, … [read more]

Every Memorial Day, Americans remember the debt of gratitude we owe to our veterans who gave their lives for our country. On this important day, communities across our Nation stop to remember and to honor the great sacrifices made by our men and women in uniform. Since its beginnings, our … [read more]

America is blessed with beautiful coastlines, lakes, and waters that offer ample opportunities for boating recreation. More than 70 million recreational boaters use our waters every year and boat registrations continue to increase. Although the number of recreational boats and boaters is growing, the incidence of boating deaths continues to … [read more]

Trade plays a vital role in encouraging prosperity and improving the lives of people around the world. It fosters economic growth, ingenuity, and innovation. And it builds high-quality jobs and promotes economic and political stability around the world. During World Trade Week, we recognize the importance of trade to building … [read more]

Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA (19 … [read more]

The words of President Dwight D. Eisenhower written in 1953 remain true today: “It is fitting and proper that we devote one day each year to paying special tribute to those whose constancy and courage constitute one of the bulwarks guarding the freedom of this nation and the peace of … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208) that the Government of Burma had committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

In the face of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, our Nation witnessed the remarkable heroism of America's peace officers as they selflessly aided those in need. As the World Trade Center towers burned, dedicated officers rushed into the severely damaged buildings to rescue the injured. Seventy-two peace officers … [read more]

The importance of America's transportation system became evident to all Americans on September 11, 2001. Airliners were diverted, airports closed, and travelers were stranded for days as transportation systems across the country were disrupted. In the aftermath of September 11, the men and women in the transportation industry have helped … [read more]

Hurricanes can devastate our communities, endangering thousands of human lives and causing billions of dollars in property damage. Stemming from the ocean, the atmosphere, and heat from the sea, hurricanes bring with them the potential for high winds, tornadoes, torrential rains, flooding, and ocean water storm surges. Their fierce and … [read more]

Mothers are central to the success of the American family. Their love, dedication, and wisdom touch countless lives every day in every community throughout our land. And their love and guidance of children help to develop healthy and spiritually sound families. President John Quincy Adams once said, “All that I … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including title III (Foreign Military Financing) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2001 (Public Law 106-429), as amended by title III (Foreign Military Financing) of the Kenneth M. Ludden … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 512 of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 2002 (Public Law 107-115) (FOAA) and sections 506(a)(1) and 620(q) of the Foreign Assistance Act … [read more]

The strength of our economy is built on the creativity and entrepreneurship of our people. Those who own and operate our Nation's 25 million small businesses make a vital contribution to our prosperity through their ongoing work to create new technologies, products, and services. These hardworking men and women and … [read more]

For hundreds of years, people across our Nation and around the world have enjoyed traveling across America to visit our magnificent cities, parks, museums, and countless other natural, historic, and cultural sites. Our land provides endless opportunities to learn as well as to enjoy our Nation's immense variety of attractions. … [read more]

In accordance with the provisions of section 1.4 of Executive Order 12958 of April 17, 1995, entitled “Classified National Security Information,” I hereby designate the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to classify information originally as “Secret.” Any delegation of this authority shall be in accordance with section 1.4(c) of … [read more]

Over a decade ago in Minnesota, a handful of educators envisioned a new kind of educational institution that would provide an alternative for children trapped in under-performing public schools. Their philosophy for a “charter school” was straightforward and powerful: provide parents the option to send their children to innovative public … [read more]

1. Section 118(a)(1) of Public Law 99-190, 99 Stat. 1319, authorized the President to deny nondiscriminatory trade treatment to the products of Afghanistan and thereby cause such products to be subject to the rate of duty in column 2 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS). 2. … [read more]

1. On April 22, 1985, the United States entered into the Agreement on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Israel (the “FTA”), which the Congress approved in the United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act of … [read more]

One of our Nation's greatest strengths is its commitment to a just, fair legal system and the protection it affords to the rights and freedoms we cherish. On May 1, we observe Law Day to draw attention to the principles of justice and the practice of law. The theme of … [read more]

Ours is a Nation of people who demonstrate their patriotic loyalty through service to our country. Whether born on American soil or abroad, Americans appreciate patriotism and loyalty to our country. President Woodrow Wilson said, “Loyalty means nothing unless it has at its heart the absolute principle of self-sacrifice.” Americans … [read more]

Our Nation's rich cultural diversity reflects our Constitution's core vision of freedom and justice for all. Throughout our history, Asian/Pacific Americans have made great contributions to America's heritage and prosperity. During this month, we proudly celebrate Asian/Pacific Americans, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States, for … [read more]

Our Nation's strength and vitality reside in our citizens. Each year in May, we honor and recognize older Americans for their important sacrifices and contributions to our society. Our seniors have cared for their families and communities, enhanced our economic prosperity, defended our Nation, and preserved and protected the Founders' … [read more]

Since our Nation's founding, Americans have turned to prayer for inspiration, strength, and guidance. In times of trial, we ask God for wisdom, courage, direction, and comfort. We offer thanks for the countless blessings God has provided. And we thank God for sanctifying every human life by creating each of … [read more]

Pursuant to section (2)(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $20 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for a contribution to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me under section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, Public Law 107-115, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and services to the Governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Tajikistan will strengthen the … [read more]

Our national park system helps preserve our history, heritage, and the natural beauty of our Nation for the enjoyment of all our citizens and many international visitors. Thanks to our park system, many of these treasures retain their original beauty and grandeur. The parks are places for recreation, education, and … [read more]

Our Nation's organ and tissue donor program is an important part of our healthcare system. Through the organ donor program, Americans can provide hope to those who face difficult and often life-threatening conditions caused by the failure of vital organs. The selfless generosity of organ and tissue donors helps meet … [read more]

Citizen service has always been a cornerstone of our democracy. Since our founding, Americans have stepped forward to serve the needs of others, strengthen our communities, and defend the freedoms we treasure. Our country and the world continue to see the compassion, strength, and generosity of Americans in the aftermath … [read more]

Thirty years ago, advocates from some of the most crime-ridden neighborhoods of St. Louis, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C., founded the Nation's first assistance programs for crime victims. These centers were established in communities where violence was common, and they were clear about their mission: to bring help, hope, and … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Byron R. White, retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that the flag of … [read more]

Pan America comprises a set of regional relationships that connects the nations of the Western Hemisphere in an increasingly interdependent network of commercial and cultural communities. Every nation in Pan America, with one notable exception, is committed to promoting freedom, democracy, and the rule of law. Over the past year, … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, America has benefited from a greatly diverse population, comprising a vibrant mix of ideas, religions, national origins, and ethnic backgrounds. And from this mix, we have inherited a Nation based on democratic principles, free enterprise, and the freedom to pursue a better way of life. Jewish … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 565(c) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is vital to the national security interests of the United States to furnish up to $95 million in … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, patriotic Americans have responded to the call to defend our freedoms. During war and peace, American soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines have stood vigilant, prepared, and willing to put themselves in harm's way to protect our Nation. We owe the liberties we have today to their … [read more]

Illegal drugs are the enemy of ambition and hope, destroying individual lives and undermining the health of our communities. In addition to the tragic consequences of drug use for Americans and their families, the drug trade supports terrorist networks that threaten our country and our allies around the world. When … [read more]

Our Nation is making important progress in the fight against cancer. Today, 8.9 million Americans have survived this disease, and new studies indicate that both cancer incidence and death rates have declined in recent years. Research and new technology have helped improve our ability to prevent, detect, and treat cancer. … [read more]

Every child deserves to be cared for by parents who provide love, protection, and nurturing. Safe and healthy childhoods help produce confident and successful adults. When parents are unable to meet their responsibilities, the consequences are tragic for their children and for society. Nationwide, reports show that more than 879,000 … [read more]

As provided in section 610 of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002, Public Law 107-77, and laws referenced therein, I hereby determine, based on all information available to the United States Government, that the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam … [read more]

Ancient Greece was the birthplace of the democratic principles and thought that fundamentally shaped the growth of democracy in world history. Societies aspiring toward more democratic forms of government have found inspiration in the Greek tradition of representative government and free political discourse. As modern Greece celebrates the anniversary of … [read more]

Living a life free from daily bone pain or joint discomfort is something most people take for granted. Our bones, joints, and connective tissues are the structure upon which all other systems of the body depend. They give us strength, mobility, protection, and stability. And they permit us to perform … [read more]

America's future depends in part on ensuring that every child in America receives a quality education. And by teaching our children the importance of serving those in need, we will help fulfill an important part of their education, showing them the rewards that come from compassionate outreach. Education has always … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and services to the Governments of Palau, Kiribati, and Tuvalu will strengthen the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me, by section 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby designate the Kingdom of Bahrain as a major non-NATO ally of the United States for the purposes of the Act and the Arms Export Control Act. You … [read more]

In 1961, the Congress established the annual observance of National Poison Prevention Week. Forty-one years later, this event continues to educate Americans about the dangers of childhood poisonings and to promote measures that help prevent such poisonings. These measures and other poison awareness efforts have helped reduce deaths from childhood … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

For two centuries, the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, has trained, educated, and inspired thousands of cadets to serve our Nation with integrity, skill, and fortitude as members of our military's officer corps. West Point emphasizes the very highest standards of personal honor, academic achievement, and … [read more]

Pursuant to section 523 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, (Public Law 107-115), I hereby certify that withholding from international financial institutions and other international organizations and programs funds appropriated or otherwise made available pursuant to that Act is contrary to the national interest. … [read more]

Women's History Month provides our country the privilege of honoring the countless contributions that American women have made throughout our history. These contributions have enriched our culture, strengthened our Nation, and furthered the Founders' vision for a free and just Republic that provides opportunity and safety at home and is … [read more]

1. On December 19, 2001, the United States International Trade Commission (ITC) transmitted to the President a report on its investigation under section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2252), with respect to imports of certain steel products. 2. The ITC reached … [read more]

The American Red Cross is one of our Nation's oldest and most renowned charitable organizations. It provides help, hope, and healing when disasters or other crises strike countries, communities, or families around the world. Founded in 1881 by Clara Barton, the American Red Cross was chartered by the Congress in … [read more]

America has been shaped by the principles of liberty and freedom, guided by the pursuit of justice, and enriched by the diversity of its people. Irish Americans have been an essential part of this development, greatly contributing to our Nation's progress and prosperity. Our country's citizens come from diverse backgrounds … [read more]

This year, more than 148,000 people will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and more than 56,000 people will die from this disease. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, yet it is one of the most highly preventable forms of cancer. Early diagnosis … [read more]

Healthy vision is a precious gift that allows us to enjoy the beauty of nature, the smile of a loved one, and the many wonders in the world around us. Unfortunately for 14 million Americans, eye problems can interfere with daily activities and inhibit the enjoyment of life. Health officials … [read more]

On December 19, 2001, the United States International Trade Commission (ITC) submitted a report to me that contained determinations pursuant to section 202 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “Trade Act”), that (a) certain carbon flat rolled steel, including carbon and alloy steel slabs, plate (including cut-to-length … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, President Clinton declared a national emergency to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Government of Cuba of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in interna tional airspace north of Cuba. In July … [read more]

In light of the political and humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe and the continued failure of President Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwean government officials, and others to support the rule of law, and given the importance to the United States of fostering democratic institutions in Zimbabwe, I have determined that it is in … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority contained in Title II of the “Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002” (Public Law 107-115), I hereby determine and certify that a waiver of section 907 of the FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-511): • is necessary … [read more]

Each year, we recognize the important role played by public and private organizations in ensuring that the American consumer is protected from unfair practices. The theme of this year's National Consumer Protection Week is “Consumer Confidential: The Privacy Story.” By focusing on consumer privacy and the protection of personal information, … [read more]

A new era in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases has created renewed hope for those suffering from heart-related disorders. Anticoagulant drugs and other technologically innovative artery-opening treatments, like angioplasty, are enabling doctors to better treat cardiovascular problems in their early stages. Armed with the knowledge that lifestyle plays … [read more]

During these extraordinary times, America looks forward to new challenges and opportunities with a reinvigorated sense of unity and common purpose. We are a strong and vibrant Nation, thanks to the creativity, fortitude, and resilience of people of every race and background. During National African American History Month, we celebrate … [read more]

Pursuant to the requirements set forth under the heading “Policy Toward Burma” in section 570(d) of the Fiscal Year 1997 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, as contained in the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 104-208), a report is required every 6 months following enactment concerning: 1) progress toward democratization in … [read more]

For too brief a time, our Nation was blessed by the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dr. King was a modern American hero whose leadership rallied people of all races to rise up against injustice. His commitment to stand peacefully for the conviction that all men are created … [read more]

National Mentoring Month allows us to recognize the important contributions made by the millions of our fellow citizens who choose to strengthen our Nation by giving their time, effort, and heart to serve as a mentor and role model for a young person. Through quality education programs, community initiatives, and … [read more]

This Nation was founded upon the belief that every human being is endowed by our Creator with certain “unalienable rights.” Chief among them is the right to life itself. The Signers of the Declaration of Independence pledged their own lives, fortunes, and honor to guarantee inalienable rights for all of … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by grave acts of … [read more]

Religious freedom is a cornerstone of our Republic, a core principle of our Constitution, and a fundamental human right. Many of those who first settled in America, such as Pilgrims, came for the freedom of worship and belief that this new land promised. And when the British Colonies became the … [read more]

On January 18, 2001, by Executive Order 13194, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sierra Leone pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions … [read more]

1. The United States and the People's Republic of China (China) opened trade relations in 1980. Since that time, the products of China have received nondiscriminatory treatment pursuant to annual waivers of the requirements of section 402 of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “Trade Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2432). Trade … [read more]

On January 7, 1986, by Executive Order 12543, President Reagan declared a national emergency to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of the Government of Libya. On January 8, 1986, by Executive … [read more]

Latest Readers

@JURISTnews

Support JURIST

We rely on our readers to keep JURIST running

 Donate now!

© Copyright JURIST Legal News and Research Services, Inc., 2013.