A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
190 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2005

Through countless acts of kindness, mentors across America are changing our Nation for the better. Every child deserves the opportunity to realize the promise of our country, and mentors show that a single soul can make a difference in a young person's life. During National Mentoring Month, we recognize the … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA (19 U.S.C. … [read more]

1. On June 15, 2004, the United States entered into the United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (USMFTA). The USMFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “USMFTA Act”) (Public Law 108-302, 118 Stat. 1103) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). 2. … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et. seq. , and notwithstanding the Executive Order I issued today entitled, “Providing an Order of Succession within the Department … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., I hereby: 1. determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the United States. 2. approve provision by the Secretary of Transportation of … [read more]

On December 17, 1903, a wooden aircraft lifted from the sands of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, remaining airborne for 12 seconds and covering a distance of 40 yards. That first powered flight was a heroic moment in our Nation's history and in the story of mankind. On Wright Brothers Day, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345,et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: (a) Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Management; (b) Deputy Director of National … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 1306 of the Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

Americans believe that freedom is God's gift to every man and woman in the world. The Founders adopted our Constitution to secure the blessings of liberty for the people of the United States, and since 1789, generations of Americans have defended and advanced freedom in our Nation. Throughout our history, … [read more]

On World AIDS Day, we remember those who have lost their lives to AIDS, and we recommit ourselves to fighting and preventing HIV/AIDS and to comforting those infected and their loved ones. The United States is working with its partners around the world to turn the tide against HIV/AIDS. In … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $5 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet unexpected urgent … [read more]

During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, we renew our efforts to educate all Americans about the tragic consequences of impaired driving and encourage all Americans to drive responsibly. Every year, too many of our citizens get behind the wheel of an automobile after drinking alcohol or using drugs. … [read more]

On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we pray for those lost on December 7, 1941, and we honor the courage of a generation of Americans who devoted themselves to one of the great missions in our country's history. After the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor took more than 2,400 American … [read more]

Thanksgiving Day is a time to remember our many blessings and to celebrate the opportunities that freedom affords. Explorers and settlers arriving in this land often gave thanks for the extraordinary plenty they found. And today, we remain grateful to live in a country of liberty and abundance. We give … [read more]

Families give our society direction and purpose. During National Family Week, we celebrate the many contributions families make to our country. Throughout America's history, families have been the foundation of our society and a source of stability and love for every generation. Strong families teach children to live moral lives … [read more]

Farming is America's first industry, and the success of America's farmers and ranchers is crucial to the prosperity of our country. During National Farm-City Week, we recognize the important relationship between rural and urban industries that helps keep our farmers and our Nation strong. America's farmers and ranchers work hard, … [read more]

On America Recycles Day, we recognize the importance of recycling and using products made with recycled materials. Today, Americans recycle many items, including motor oil, tires, aluminum cans, plastic, glass, batteries, and building materials. These community efforts are designed to make a difference in our environment and help improve our … [read more]

On November 9, 1989, citizens of East Germany crowded the checkpoints at the Berlin Wall and forced their way to freedom. In the ensuing weeks and months, this unquenchable thirst for liberty led to the collapse of the Soviet empire and the downfall of communism in the Soviet Union. Today, … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) is seeking to become a Member of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Saudi Arabia has concluded a bilateral agreement with the United States related to Saudi Arabia's accession to the WTO. Saudi Arabia's commitments under this bilateral agreement with the United States ensure: … [read more]

WHEREAS, the provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 31 of title 40, United States Code, 40 U.S.C. 3141-3148, and the provisions of all other acts, Executive Orders, proclamations, rules, regulations, or other directives providing for the payment of wages, which provisions are dependent upon determinations by the Secretary of Labor … [read more]

National American Indian Heritage Month honors the many contributions and accomplishments of American Indians and Alaska Natives. During November, we remember the legacy of the first Americans and celebrate their vibrant and living traditions. The American Indian experience is central to the American story, and my Administration is committed to … [read more]

Each November, as Americans reflect on our many blessings, we observe National Family Caregivers Month and give thanks for the selfless service of family caregivers on behalf of their loved ones in need. The tireless devotion of these Americans brings comfort and peace of mind to our Nation's elderly and … [read more]

National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month is an opportunity to recognize the strength of family members, doctors, nurses, volunteers, and others who provide care for those living with this devastating disease. During this month, we also reaffirm our commitment to victims of this disease. We hope to enhance the quality of … [read more]

All children deserve strong families with mothers and fathers who are there to protect and love them. Every year, thousands of Americans extend the gift of family to a child through adoption. During National Adoption Month, we recognize the compassion of adoptive and foster families and renew our pledge to … [read more]

Americans of all ages and backgrounds live with diabetes. Nearly 21 million of our citizens have this disease, and researchers estimate that more than 6 million of these individuals have not been diagnosed and are unaware they have it. National Diabetes Month is an opportunity to educate citizens about diabetes … [read more]

The great strength of America lies in the hearts and souls of our citizens. During National Hospice Month, we recognize hospice caregivers who are building a more compassionate society, where life is valued and those in need can count on the love and support of others. We also recognize the … [read more]

Americans owe a great debt of gratitude to those who have sacrificed for our liberty and for the security of our Nation. We express deep appreciation to our veterans—the men and women who stepped forward when America needed them, triumphed over brutal enemies, liberated continents, and answered the prayers of … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Rosa Parks, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that on the day of her interment, the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff at … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President contained within section 1205 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 … [read more]

In accordance with Section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2006 … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005, Public Law 108-447, as provided for in the Joint Resolution Making Continuing Appropriations for the Fiscal Year 2006 (Public Law 109-77), I hereby determine and certify that it … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. § 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, President Clinton declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

Sixty years ago, the United Nations was created to spread hope and liberty, fight poverty and disease, and help secure human rights and human dignity for people everywhere. On United Nations Day, we recommit ourselves to the ideals on which this organization was founded. Throughout history, the human spirit has … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

During National Character Counts Week, we focus on ways to reach out to our fellow Americans, especially children. Parents are the first and best example of character in a child's life. By volunteering and performing other acts of service in their communities, parents can teach children about the good that … [read more]

In times of crisis, our Nation depends on the courage and determination of the members of our National Guard and Reserve. Across our country, these dedicated citizen-soldiers are answering the call to serve. During National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, we honor the vital contributions of members … [read more]

America's forests are a source of pride, and they provide crucial products and materials for our citizens and communities. As we celebrate National Forest Products Week, we recognize the importance of our forests to our economy and way of life, and we reaffirm our commitment to protecting them through wise … [read more]

Americans who are blind or visually impaired are valuable and contributing members of our society, and many use a white cane to help them succeed at school, home, or work. White canes give these individuals greater mobility and enable them to participate in more aspects of community life. On White … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the Sultanate of Oman. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 575 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005 (FY 2005 FOAA) (Div. D, Public Law 108-447), I hereby certify that Saudi Arabia is cooperating with efforts … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including sections 40(g) and 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this certification to the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including sections 40(g) and 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this certification to the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine it necessary for the purposes of that Act that $5 million in FY 2004 funds made available … [read more]

Each year, fires kill or injure thousands of Americans and destroy or damage billions of dollars worth of property. Many of these fires might have been prevented by taking appropriate precautions and following safety guidelines. During Fire Prevention Week, we highlight the need to prevent and prepare for fires, and … [read more]

Since 1946, the National School Lunch Program has contributed to the welfare of our Nation's youth and the academic mission of our schools. Each year during National School Lunch Week, we recognize this valuable program and highlight the continuing importance of providing America's children with access to nutritious meals. Today, … [read more]

More than 1,000 years ago, Leif Erikson left the coast of Greenland and began a journey to explore new lands. He made that voyage in the spirit of discovery and became one of the first Europeans known to have reached North America, inspiring stories of bountiful lands and charting a … [read more]

Christopher Columbus' journey across uncharted waters in 1492 changed the course of history. Overcoming many obstacles, the explorer from Genoa pursued a dream that carried him to the “New World” and helped launch an age of exploration, leading to the founding of new countries across the Americas. Through the years, … [read more]

America's freedom has been achieved with great sacrifice. In the Revolutionary War, General Casimir Pulaski gave his life for the cause of freedom. Today, we honor his selfless contributions and heroic service. Born in Poland, Casimir Pulaski fought Russian oppression in his homeland. In 1776, Benjamin Franklin met Pulaski in … [read more]

German Americans have played an important role in establishing America as a land where liberty is protected for all of its citizens. Each year on German-American Day, we celebrate the contributions the millions of Americans of German descent have made to our great Nation. Among the early German immigrants, many … [read more]

Breast cancer is the second most common kind of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to making progress in the fight to prevent, detect, treat, and cure this deadly disease. Although … [read more]

Across America, individuals with disabilities are making important contributions in the workplace. This month, we celebrate their accomplishments and reaffirm our commitment to ensuring that the opportunities of America are available and accessible to every citizen. Fifteen years ago, President George H. W. Bush signed into law the Americans with … [read more]

Domestic violence is a great evil and an offense against human dignity that shatters lives and robs children of their innocence. Where it occurs, homes are transformed into places of danger and despair. During National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to preventing domestic violence. We are making … [read more]

Children are a precious gift, and we have a responsibility to help them realize a hopeful and promising future. On Child Health Day, we underscore the importance of healthy and active lifestyles for our Nation's young people, and we reaffirm our commitment to helping them use their gifts to work … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: would promote the purpose of the Act or is otherwise in the national interest of the United States. The certification required by section 110(e) of the … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, … [read more]

The men and women of America's Armed Forces selflessly serve to protect our Nation, and they are among our greatest heroes. From the trenches of World War I to the beaches of Normandy, from Korea to Vietnam, from Afghanistan to Iraq, many courageous members of our military have given their … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

Throughout our history, America has been a land of diversity and has benefitted from the contributions of people of different backgrounds brought together by a love of liberty. During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we celebrate the achievements of Hispanic Americans and the significant role they have played in making our … [read more]

More than two centuries after our Founding Fathers gathered in 1787 in Philadelphia, our Nation continues to be guided by the Constitution they drafted. The Constitution of the United States reflects our ideals and establishes a practical system of government. It provides for three separate branches—the legislative, the executive, and … [read more]

As stewards of our natural resources, farmers and ranchers play a crucial role in keeping our Nation strong. This year's theme for National Farm Safety and Health Week, “Harvesting Safety and Health,” encourages those in the agriculture industry to practice and promote safe working conditions and reminds all Americans of … [read more]

Families are a source of hope, stability, and love. On Family Day, we celebrate the special bonds that link children and parents, and we recognize the importance of parental involvement in the lives of their children. By providing guidance, support, and unconditional love, families help shape the character and future … [read more]

In every generation, members of our Armed Forces have answered the call of service in our Nation's hour of need. These patriots have defended our freedom and way of life, triumphed over brutal enemies, and answered the prayers of millions. On National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we honor the Americans who … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 574 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005 (the “Act”), Division D of Public Law 108-447, I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress, and to arrange for its publication … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress and to arrange for … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 10, 2004 (69 Fed. Reg. 55497), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading with the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2005. I hereby determine … [read more]

Four years have passed since our country was brutally attacked on a quiet September morning. On that day, thousands of innocent lives were taken from us. The victims and the families who lost loved ones remain in the hearts and prayers of our Nation. We also remember the courage of … [read more]

Americans will always remember the terrible events and violent cruelty of September 11, 2001. We will always honor the many innocent lives that were lost, and we will never forget the heroism of passengers, first responders, and others on that day. During this year's National Days of Prayer and Remembrance, … [read more]

Across our country, the entrepreneurial spirit of minority businesses is strong and growing. By creating jobs and advancing opportunities, these businesses improve lives and transform neighborhoods throughout our Nation. During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we recognize minority entrepreneurs and their employees for their commitment to free enterprise and equal opportunity. … [read more]

America's Historically Black Colleges and Universities are places of learning and achievement that reflect our Nation's belief in the great potential of every student. By upholding high standards of excellence and providing equal educational opportunities to all Americans, these valued institutions help ensure that all our citizens can realize their … [read more]

Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst natural disasters in our Nation's history and has caused unimaginable devastation and heartbreak throughout the Gulf Coast Region. A vast coastline of towns and communities has been decimated. Many lives have been lost, and hundreds of thousands of our fellow Americans are suffering … [read more]

1. Section 3142(a) of title 40, United States Code, provides that “every contract in excess of $2,000, to which the Federal Government or the District of Columbia is a party, for construction, alteration, or repair, including painting and decorating, of public buildings and public works of the Government or the … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, and the Pentagon, and the … [read more]

As a mark of respect for William H. Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including section 7 of title 4, United States Code, that the flag of the United … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff at the White House and on all … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions conferred upon the President relating to loan guarantees to Egypt in paragraph (2) under … [read more]

The devastating effects of alcohol and drug addiction have destroyed the lives and families of countless Americans. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we recognize the dangers of substance abuse and renew the hope of overcoming addiction for individuals across our Nation. This year's theme, “Join the Voices … [read more]

Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women in the United States. Each year, thousands of women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer, and thousands die from the disease. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we strive to raise awareness of ovarian cancer and promote early … [read more]

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. This year, thousands of men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and thousands will die from the disease. While great strides have been made in the battle against prostate cancer, we have more work to do. During … [read more]

On August 26, 1920, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution was adopted, guaranteeing American women the right to vote. The passage of this amendment was the culmination of a long struggle that reached back to the founding of the country and was furthered by the 1848 women's rights convention in … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

Americans live in freedom because of the extraordinary bravery, sacrifice, and dedication to duty of the members of our Armed Forces. From the first official Army parachute jump 65 years ago, our country's Airborne troops have played a crucial role in the defense of our Nation and our liberty. On … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress, and to arrange for … [read more]

In America, we believe in the freedom of every individual. This freedom includes the ability to participate in one of the most cherished rights and fundamental responsibilities of citizenship: the right to vote. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 helped ensure that all citizens would have the opportunity to vote, … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August 17, … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 316 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the functions of the President with respect to appropriations made under the heading ``Unanticipated Needs'' in the Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane … [read more]

On July 26, 1990, President George H. W. Bush signed into law the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This historic legislation provides a clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities. The ADA reflects our Nation's faith in the promise of all individuals and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 552(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, I hereby determine that: I therefore direct the drawdown of up to $6 million in commodities and services from the Department … [read more]

Parents are role models for their children. With patience, sacrifice, and love, they teach their children life lessons and prepare them for the future. On Parents' Day, we express our gratitude for the hard work of parents throughout America and reaffirm our commitment to promoting a culture of responsible parenthood. … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 550(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005 (Div. D, Public Law 108-447)(the “Act”), I hereby certify that it is important to the national security … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons and prohibiting the importation of certain goods from Liberia, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 104(h) of the Compact of Free Association Amendments Act of 2003 … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 337(j)(1)(B), section 337(j)(2), and section 337(j)(4) of the Tariff Act of … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 506(a)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(2)(the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to draw down articles, … [read more]

America stands for freedom and supports those who are oppressed. During Captive Nations Week, we reaffirm our commitment to advancing democracy, defending liberty, and protecting human rights around the world. When President Eisenhower issued the first Captive Nations Week proclamation in 1959, freedom was being denied by communist regimes in … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress and to arrange for … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to Congress transmitted on the date hereof, pursuant to section 603 of that Act, regarding noncompliance by … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under section 582 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related … [read more]

My memorandum on “Assignment of Reporting Functions under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004” of April 21, 2005, is amended by striking “7119(a)” and inserting in lieu thereof “7120.” You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in theFederal Register . Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 502(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2462(a)(1)), the President is authorized to designate countries as beneficiary developing countries for purposes of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). 2. In Proclamation 6425 of April 29, 1992, the President suspended … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 414 of the Transportation, Treasury, Independent Agencies, and General Government Appropriations … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 202 and other relevant provisions of the Afghanistan Freedom Support Act (Public Law 107-327) and section 506 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318, I hereby … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Being a father is a great responsibility and a great joy. From the moment their children are born, fathers face the daily tasks of being mentors, protectors, providers, and friends. Fathers take great pride in watching their children take their first steps, learn to read, and attend their first day … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “Order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereinafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

For more than two centuries, the flag of the United States has been a symbol of hope and pride. The flag has inspired our citizens during times of conflict and comforted us during moments of sorrow and loss. On Flag Day and throughout National Flag Week, we celebrate the proud … [read more]

Children are the future of our country and America's next generation of leaders. All of us—parents, families, teachers, mentors, and community members—have a responsibility to children to honor and pass along the values that sustain a free society. By spending time with a young person, adults can help our Nation's … [read more]

During Black Music Month, we pay tribute to a rich musical tradition and honor the many contributions African-American musicians, singers, and composers have made to the culture of our Nation and to the world. This powerful, moving, and soulful music speaks to every heart, lifting us in times of sorrow … [read more]

During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our Nation's natural heritage, reaffirm our commitment to conserve our environment, and recognize the many volunteers who help maintain our natural spaces. Americans are blessed by our country's expansive landscapes, diverse wildlife, and beautiful public lands. Outdoor recreation provides an opportunity to enjoy the … [read more]

Pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 3345(a) of title 5, United States Code, and notwithstanding Executive Order 13000 of April 24, 1996, I direct as follows: (1) In the event of the death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary … [read more]

For millions of individuals and families, the American Dream starts with owning a home. When families move into a home of their own, they gain independence and confidence, and their faith in the future grows. The spread of ownership and opportunity helps give our citizens a vital stake in the … [read more]

On Memorial Day, we honor the men and women in uniform who have given their lives in service to our Nation. When the stakes were highest, our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen answered the call of duty and made the ultimate sacrifice for the security of our country … [read more]

Recreational boating has grown into one of our Nation's most popular pastimes, and as the summer approaches, millions of Americans will enjoy our country's beautiful waters. During National Safe Boating Week, we highlight our Nation's commitment to making recreational boating safer. The number of boating fatalities has decreased over the … [read more]

America's merchant mariners make our Nation more secure and our economy stronger. Throughout our history, they have promoted commerce and protected our freedom. On National Maritime Day, we honor the dedicated service of the United States Merchant Marine. Each year, the men and women of the U.S. maritime transportation system … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, I declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (IEEPA). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

Across our Nation, the courageous men and women who protect our communities wear the uniform and badge with pride as they safeguard our families, homes, and communities. On Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, we honor the memory of those heroes who have fallen in the line of duty … [read more]

We rely on the men and women of our transportation industry to ensure efficient, secure, and reliable travel for our citizens and to keep our economy growing. On National Defense Transportation Day and during National Transportation Week, we recognize those who maintain and support our transportation system. Our transportation system … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

Free and fair trade creates jobs, raises living standards, and lowers prices for families throughout America. It also strengthens our relationships with other countries, helping us to forge new partnerships based on a commitment to generate new prosperity and a better way of life for people in America and throughout … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $34.7 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to support unexpected urgent … [read more]

Each year from June through November, Americans living on the Eastern seaboard and along the Gulf of Mexico face an increased threat of hurricanes. These powerful storms can create severe flooding, cause power outages, and damage homes and businesses with their high winds, tornadoes, storm surges, and heavy rainfall. The … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the function of the President of providing to the Congress a report under section 9012 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2005 … [read more]

During Jewish Heritage Week, we celebrate and honor Jewish Americans for their contributions to this country and for helping to shape our national character. The story of the Jewish people reflects the triumph of faith, the importance of family, and the power of hope. Through inspiring stories of personal sacrifice … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to my authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-175), I issued Executive Order 13338 in which I declared a national emergency blocking the property of certain persons … [read more]

On Mother's Day, we pay tribute to the extraordinary women whose guidance and unconditional love shape our lives and our future. Motherhood often allows little time for rest. As President Theodore Roosevelt said of the American mother in 1905, “Upon her time and strength, demands are made not only every … [read more]

Sixty years ago, the flags of freedom unfurled across Europe and Asia as victorious American and Allied troops brought World War II to an end. Freedom prevailed when millions were liberated from oppression and tyranny was replaced by democracy. The years of World War II were a hard, heroic, and … [read more]

Millions of Americans proudly trace their ancestry to the many nations that make up Asia and the Pacific islands. For generations, Americans of Asian/Pacific heritage have strengthened our Nation through their achievements in all walks of life, including business, politics, education, community service, the arts, and science. This month we … [read more]

Older Americans teach us the timeless lessons of courage, sacrifice, and love. By sharing their wisdom and experience, they serve as role models for future generations. During Older Americans Month, we pay tribute to our senior citizens and their contributions to our Nation. Our seniors deserve our greatest respect. Their … [read more]

Since our Nation's earliest days, prayer has given strength and comfort to Americans of all faiths. Our Founding Fathers relied on their faith to guide them as they built our democracy. Today, we continue to be inspired by God's blessings, mercy, and boundless love. As we observe this National Day … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President under the Constitution and laws of the United States of America and pursuant to the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., I hereby order that: Section 1. Order of Succession. During any period when the Director of … [read more]

The American legal system helps preserve our constitutional principles and ensures justice for all our citizens. As we celebrate Law Day, we recognize our Nation's commitment to the rule of law and the rights and privileges that all Americans share. President Eisenhower established Law Day in 1958 to pay tribute … [read more]

Generations of men and women have sacrificed to defend the basic principles of liberty upon which our Nation was founded. This spirit of selfless service helps keep America strong and free. On Loyalty Day, we join together to celebrate this bond that makes our country great. For more than two … [read more]

Strong schools are the building blocks of a prosperous and hopeful country. To ensure that all our children receive the education they need to succeed, schools must be innovative, accountable, and committed to student achievement. The charter school movement was founded on these principles and has played an important role … [read more]

Consistent with the provisions of section 1.3 of Executive Order 12958 of April 17, 1995, as amended, entitled “Classified National Security Information,” I hereby designate the following officers to classify information originally as “Top Secret:” Director of National Intelligence; and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Any delegation of this … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005, Public Law 108-447, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

Physical fitness is vital to a healthy lifestyle. During National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, we highlight the importance of integrating exercise into our daily routines and encourage all our citizens to live more active lives. Physical fitness benefits both the body and the mind. Regular exercise, along with healthy … [read more]

As we enjoy the great freedoms of our country, we are mindful of our obligation to pass on to our children the values that sustain our liberty and our democracy. On Education and Sharing Day, we reaffirm our commitment to teach young people the lessons they need to preserve and … [read more]

Subsection 1097(a) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-458, December 17, 2004)(the Act) provides: (a) IN GENERAL- Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Act, this title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect not later than 6 months after the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution andlaws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, UnitedStates Code: 1. The reporting functions of the President under sections 4026(a)(4)(A), 4026(c)(2), 7104(e)(4)(A), 7202(d), 7204(c)(1)-(2), and 7119(a) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 … [read more]

America's system of national parks is dedicated to protecting our resources and preserving our cultural and natural treasures. During National Park Week, we celebrate these places and those who work to support and maintain them. This year's National Park Week theme, “National Parks: America's Gift to the World,” reminds us … [read more]

The great strength of our Nation is found in the hearts and souls of the American people. During National Volunteer Week, we recognize the millions of individuals who touch our lives as soldiers in America's armies of compassion. Our Nation's volunteers inspire us with their dedication, commitment, and efforts to … [read more]

America's economy is the most prosperous in the world, and the small business sector is one of its great strengths. During Small Business Week, we honor small business owners and workers, and we reaffirm our commitment to keeping America the best place in the world to do business. Our economy … [read more]

We are making great gains in the fight against cancer. Advances in prevention, early detection, and treatment are reducing cancer rates and increasing the likelihood of survival. Despite this progress, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in America. During Cancer Control Month, we continue to work to learn … [read more]

Leaders across the Americas understand that the hope for peace in our world depends on the unity of free nations. Each year, the people of the United States observe Pan American Day and Pan American Week to honor our shared commitment to freedom, prosperity, and security. We are working with … [read more]

Across America, law enforcement officers, volunteers, parents, and teachers are helping to send the right message to our Nation's youth about illegal drugs and violence through the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) Program. On National D.A.R.E. Day, we express our gratitude for the important work of these individuals and reaffirm … [read more]

As a mark of respect for His Holiness Pope John Paul II, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff at the White House and on … [read more]

In proclaiming the first Victims' Rights Week in 1981, President Reagan said, “it is time all of us paid greater heed to the plight of victims.” Since then, America has made great progress in treating crime victims with greater respect, meeting their needs, and providing them with help, hope, and … [read more]

Our Nation has a responsibility to build a safe and nurturing society so that our young people can realize their full potential. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse and rededicate ourselves to working together to ensure that all children can have a … [read more]

America's health care system is the best in the world. We are blessed with skilled doctors and medical professionals, advances in technology, and countless organ, tissue, and bone marrow donors who help save lives. During National Donate Life Month, we continue to work to raise donation awareness, help people get … [read more]

From the time of our Nation's founding, members of our military have built a tradition of honorable and faithful service. As they fought to protect our security and defend our ideals, some endured the extreme hardship of enemy captivity. On National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, we remember those … [read more]

Consistent with section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the function of the President under section 613 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2004 (Division D of Public Law 108-199) is assigned to the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State shall perform such … [read more]

Well before modern Greece gained her independence, the ancient Athenians adopted democratic principles that guided their society. These principles inspired our Founding Fathers to proclaim the imperative of self-government as they worked to build our great Nation. America's love for liberty has deep roots in the spirit of Greece. On … [read more]

National Poison Prevention Week reminds us that young children need constant close supervision by responsible adults to keep them safe. This week highlights the dangers of accidental poisonings, steps that can be taken to reduce risks, and what to do in case of an emergency. Poison control centers receive approximately … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

The story of the Irish in America is an important part of the history of our country. This month, we pay tribute to Americans of Irish descent who have shaped our Nation and influenced American life. Long before the great wave of Irish immigration in the 1840s, people of Irish … [read more]

Eye disease causes suffering, loss of productivity, and diminished quality of life for millions of Americans. During Save Your Vision Week, we raise awareness of eye disease and encourage all our citizens to take action to safeguard their eyesight. As people age, they can develop conditions that affect eyesight, including … [read more]

During Women's History Month, we celebrate the achievements of our Nation's women. For generations, American women have helped build our great Nation through their leadership as writers, teachers, artists, politicians, doctors, and scientists, and in other professions. As mothers, daughters, and sisters, women have supported and strengthened American families and … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, I declared a national emergency blocking the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including Public Law 107-57, as amended, I hereby determine and certify, with respect to Pakistan, that a waiver of any provision of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Program Appropriations Act, 2005 (Division … [read more]

Americans have a long history of rising to meet humanitarian challenges, and the American Red Cross is a leader in these efforts. Since 1881, the American Red Cross has met disaster with compassion and courage. During American Red Cross Month, we honor this dedication and reaffirm the importance of volunteering … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 574 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005 (the “Act”), Division D of Public Law 108-447, I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress, and to arrange for its publication … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under section 576(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by Public Law 98-373 (15 U.S.C. 4107(b) and 4108(a)), to … [read more]

1. Presidential Proclamation 6641 of December 15, 1993, implemented the North American Free Trade Agreement (the “NAFTA”) with respect to the United States and, pursuant to the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “NAFTA Implementation Act”), incorporated in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (the “HTS”) … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, the contributions of African Americans have stirred our Nation's conscience and helped shape our character. During National African American History Month, we honor the determination and commitment of generations of African Americans in pursuing the promises of America. The theme of National African American History Month … [read more]

This year's National Consumer Protection Week focuses on the impact and problems caused by identity theft and on the steps Government is taking to safeguard personal information. Today, many Americans reveal personal information when making purchases, borrowing money, or opening a bank or credit card account. This information makes it … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 7(b)(6) of the Railroad Retirement Act and section … [read more]

The miracles of modern medicine offer hope to those affected by heart disease, yet there are also simple measures that Americans can take to help prevent the disease. During American Heart Month, I encourage all Americans to take action to help reduce their risk and increase awareness of heart disease. … [read more]

In 2005, the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service celebrates a century of service to our Nation. After President Theodore Roosevelt established the Forest Service as part of the Department of Agriculture in 1905, Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson wrote to the First Chief of the Forest Service, Forester Gifford Pinchot, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 202 and other relevant provisions of the Afghanistan Freedom Support Act (Public Law 107-327, as amended) and section 506 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318, I … [read more]

At the Auschwitz concentration camp, evil found willing servants and innocent victims. For almost 5 years, Auschwitz was a factory for murder where more than a million lives were taken. It is a sobering reminder of the power of evil and the need for people to oppose evil wherever it … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to Congress transmitted on the date hereof, pursuant to section 603 of that Act, regarding noncompliance by … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority contained in title II of the Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107-115), I hereby determine and certify that extending the waiver of section 907 of the FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-511): Accordingly, I … [read more]

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was a visionary American and a dedicated leader who believed deeply in liberty and dignity for every person. His faith and courage continue to inspire America and the world. We honor his life and his work. Growing up in Atlanta, Georgia, Dr. King witnessed firsthand … [read more]

The Declaration of Independence proclaimed that all Americans are endowed by the Creator with the unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. On National Sanctity of Human Life Day, we celebrate the sacred gift of life. We have a responsibility in America to defend the life of … [read more]

George Washington wrote, “The liberty enjoyed by the people of these States, of worshipping Almighty God agreeably to their consciences, is not only among the choicest of their blessings, but also of their rights.” On Religious Freedom Day, Americans commemorate the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

All Americans are grateful for the special people who played a positive role in their childhood. Whether a relative, teacher, coach, or community leader, a dedicated mentor can profoundly change a young person's life. During National Mentoring Month, we recognize the role models who have influenced lives, and we continue … [read more]

1. Since declaring its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia has made considerable progress in enacting market reforms and on February 5, 2003, Armenia acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The extension of unconditional normal trade relations treatment to the products of Armenia will permit the United … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 901(j)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (a) I hereby determine that the waiver of the application of section 901(j)(1) … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 901(j)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), I hereby waive the application of section 901(j)(1) of the Code with respect to Libya. I hereby authorize and direct you to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including my authority as Commander in Chief, I hereby direct the Secretary of Defense to provide such disaster assistance to Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives, Malaysia, Burma, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of the Indian Ocean Earthquake and the resulting Tsunamis, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff at … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 1306 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-314), I hereby certify that waiving the restrictions contained in subsection (d) of section 1203 of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993 (22 U.S.C. 5952), as amended, … [read more]

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