A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
187 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2008

1. On January 19, 2006, the United States entered into the United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”). The Congress approved the Agreement in section 101(a) of the United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “Implementation Act”) (Public Law 109-283, 120 Stat. 1191) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). 2. Section … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (the “Agreement countries”). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., I hereby: 1. Determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function conferred upon the President by section 14(b) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's … [read more]

Our history is rich with pioneers and innovators who used their God-given talents to improve our Nation and the world. On Wright Brothers Day, we commemorate two brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, who took great risks and ushered in a new era of travel and discovery. With intrepid spirits and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

The United States was founded on the principle that government must respect people's rights to speak freely, worship as they choose, and pursue their dreams in liberty. As we remember the enduring importance of our Constitution's Bill of Rights, our thoughts turn to those who have yet to secure these … [read more]

Beginning at Pearl Harbor with the day of infamy that saw the sinking of the USS ARIZONA and ending on the deck of the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay, many of the key battles of World War II were waged on and near American shores and throughout the Pacific. We … [read more]

On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we mourn the more than 2,400 Americans whose lives were lost in the surprise attack on our homeland that changed the course of history. Their service and sacrifice and the service and sacrifice of all our World War II veterans will be forever honored … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. , it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession . Subject to the provisions of section … [read more]

During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, we underscore our commitment to raising awareness about the tragedies that often result from driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Nearly 13,000 Americans died last year as a result of drunk driving. During the holidays, people are more likely to … [read more]

As Americans, we believe in the inherent dignity and value of every man, woman, and child. On World AIDS Day, we recommit ourselves to the global challenge of combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and to showing our compassion for those affected here at home and around the world. The fight against … [read more]

1. Section 404 of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “CAFTA-DR Act”), as added by section 2 of Public Law 110-436, 122 Stat. 4976, provides for preferential tariff treatment of eligible apparel articles wholly assembled in an eligible country and imported directly from an … [read more]

Thanksgiving is a time for families and friends to gather together and express gratitude for all that we have been given, the freedoms we enjoy, and the loved ones who enrich our lives. We recognize that all of these blessings, and life itself, come not from the hand of man … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including 3 U.S.C. 301 and 46 U.S.C. chapter 539, I hereby approve the provision by the Secretary of Transportation of insurance or reinsurance of vessels (including cargo and crew) against loss or damage … [read more]

Farmers and ranchers display the values of hard work and good stewardship, and National Farm-City Week is an opportunity to recognize these individuals and their urban partners for contributing to our Nation's well-being. Farming, America's first industry, helps feed and clothe our citizens and increasingly provides more of our energy. … [read more]

During National Family Week, we reflect on the important values and character that families instill in their children and in our society. Families offer a stable and nurturing environment for children by providing support and comfort. A child's parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and other family members show them … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Arab Emirates Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the … [read more]

On America Recycles Day, we highlight the importance of recycling as a way to safeguard and protect the environment and preserve our precious natural resources. We live in a country of splendor and beauty, and no matter which State each of us calls home, we all have a responsibility to … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On World Freedom Day, we celebrate the anniversary of the historic fall of the Berlin Wall and honor the brave citizens of East and West Germany who helped secure freedom and liberty for future generations. The Berlin Wall stood as a barrier that isolated the victims of imperial Communism and … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

During National Adoption Month, we recognize the compassion of adoptive and foster families as we seek to raise awareness of the need for every child in America to have a safe, loving, and permanent home. Adopting a child is a great joy and also a great responsibility. Parents are a … [read more]

During National Hospice Month, we honor the dedicated health care professionals and volunteers who help the terminally ill spend their final days in comfort and with dignity. Hospice care providers and other compassionate individuals are a constant reminder that the greatness of America lies in the hearts and souls of … [read more]

On Veterans Day, we pay tribute to the service and sacrifice of the men and women who in defense of our freedom have bravely worn the uniform of the United States. From the fields and forests of war-torn Europe to the jungles of Southeast Asia, from the deserts of Iraq … [read more]

During National American Indian Heritage Month, we celebrate the rich ancestry of American Indians and Alaska Natives and recognize their many contributions to our national story. Native Americans have enriched our heritage and added to all aspects of our society. Our country is blessed to have their character and strength, … [read more]

Many Americans, of all ages and backgrounds, are affected by diabetes. National Diabetes Month is an opportunity to inform individuals about the risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this serious disease. Diabetes is a debilitating disease that results from the body's inability to produce or use insulin effectively. Type 1 … [read more]

During National Family Caregivers Month we recognize and celebrate the many individuals throughout our country who work each day to ensure a better quality of life for their family members. Through their selfless action, these caregivers provide their loved ones support and comfort as they age, combat illness, or suffer … [read more]

During National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, we recognize the dignity and courage of the men and women living with Alzheimer's disease. We also honor the devoted family members and caretakers who bring them love and comfort, and we underscore our dedication to finding a cure for this tragic disease. Alzheimer's … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, a national emergency was declared with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the reporting function conferred upon the President by section 1265 of the National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and Syria, not to provide … [read more]

Pursuant to section 102(c) and section 204(a) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act, I hereby certify that: You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the Federal Register. … [read more]

On October 24, 1945, in the wake of the devastation left by World War II, the United Nations was formally established. Today, we recognize the many contributions of the United Nations and renew our commitment to its founding principles. Sixty-three years ago, representatives from around the world completed the founding … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, I declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons … [read more]

HASH(0xa6e91f4) Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 634(d) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161), as carried forward by the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2009 (Division A, Public Law 110-329), I hereby determine and certify that it … [read more]

HASH(0xb203378) Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that … [read more]

The strength of our Nation is found in the character of our citizens. During National Character Counts Week, we recommit ourselves to instilling strong values in our youth and encourage all Americans to develop good character. Parents and families can teach children the timeless principles of respect, responsibility, honesty, commitment, … [read more]

During National Forest Products Week, we highlight our country's commitment to protect and wisely use America's forests for our Nation's prosperity and well-being. Across our country, citizens rely on forest products to meet their daily needs. Our forests enable us to produce goods such as paper and furniture, provide raw … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

During National School Lunch Week, we underscore the importance of providing America's children with access to nutritious meals and helping them develop good eating habits through the National School Lunch Program. The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program administered by the Department of Agriculture's Food and … [read more]

Christopher Columbus' bold voyage across the Atlantic changed the world forever. On Columbus Day, we remember this Italian explorer's courage in traveling to the unknown and celebrate his landmark achievements and lasting legacy. History holds remarkable examples of heroism and adventure, and the journey of the navigator from Genoa in … [read more]

On General Pulaski Memorial Day, we celebrate General Casimir Pulaski's selfless dedication to the cause of freedom during the American Revolution. In our Nation's struggle for independence, brave individuals such as Casimir Pulaski came to our shores and risked their lives to help bring liberty to a new continent. General … [read more]

Compassion is one of our Nation's defining values, and we must work to ensure that all Americans are able to participate fully in society. The white cane allows many of our citizens who are blind or visually impaired to enjoy increased mobility. On White Cane Safety Day, we celebrate the … [read more]

HASH(0xabbd2dc) October 3, 2008 HASH(0xa36ce7c) By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, … [read more]

HASH(0xa70a8f4) October 6, 2008 HASH(0xa6f3d58) By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 650(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161) (the “Act”), as carried … [read more]

On Leif Erikson Day, we remember that son of Iceland and grandson of Norway for his journey to North America, and we celebrate the influential role Nordic Americans have played in our society. Leif Erikson was among the world's greatest and most daring explorers. More than 1,000 years ago, he … [read more]

Fire Prevention Week is an opportunity to call attention to the importance of fire safety, especially in the home, and to honor our Nation's firefighters for their heroism. Americans can help reduce home fires by taking simple steps such as regularly inspecting furnaces and fireplaces, keeping space heaters at least … [read more]

Americans have a duty to promote the health and safety of our children. On Child Health Day, we affirm that all children are a precious gift, and we underscore our commitment to helping them realize their full potential. Families are the foundation of our society, and parents play the vital … [read more]

For generations, German Americans have contributed to our Nation's identity, culture, and prosperity. On German-American Day, we recognize the many Americans with German ancestry who helped make our country great, and we celebrate our strong friendship with Germany. The people of Germany and the United States share important family and … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 80,000 refugees to the United States during Fiscal Year(FY) … [read more]

During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to fighting and preventing this devastating disease. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women, and we must strengthen our support of those who are living with this disease while continuing to work toward a … [read more]

During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we reaffirm our commitment to ensuring that our Nation's promise extends to all our citizens. Millions of Americans live with disabilities, and many other Americans will become disabled at some point in their lives. To integrate people with disabilities more fully into every aspect … [read more]

Our Nation has a moral obligation to work to prevent domestic violence and address its brutal and destructive effects. During National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to helping individuals across our country who face such devastating violence. My Administration remains dedicated to eradicating domestic violence and helping … [read more]

1. Section 213A(b) of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (19 U.S.C. 2703a(b)) (the “CBERA”), as amended by section 15402(a)(2) of the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2008 (part 1 of subtitle D of title XV of Public Law 110-246, 122 Stat. 2289) (the “HOPE II Act”), … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. , it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Subject to the provisions of sections 2 and 3 of … [read more]

1. Section 3A(b)(1) of the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-61) (the “Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act”), as amended by section 6(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta’s Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-286) (the “JADE Act”), directs the President to prohibit … [read more]

From our rugged peaks and mountains to our shining seas, our Nation is blessed with remarkable natural treasures. These magnificent landscapes are places where families and friends can create lasting memories and enjoy the outdoors. On National Hunting and Fishing Day, our country honors the many contributions of America's hunters … [read more]

Throughout our history, the men and women of the Armed Forces have put our Nation's security before their own, doing their duty in the face of grave danger. On Gold Star Mother's Day, we pay solemn tribute to the mothers of the patriots lost serving this great Nation. Gold Star … [read more]

I propose to suspend Bolivia's designation as a beneficiary country under the Andean Trade Preference Act, as amended (the “Act”), and as an Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act beneficiary country. By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, … [read more]

Agriculture has always been a vital part of America's economy and culture, and our farmers and ranchers are among the best stewards of our land. During National Farm Safety and Health Week, we recognize those working in agriculture for their contributions to our Nation's prosperity, security, and health, and we … [read more]

Strong families are essential to the well-being of our Nation. On Family Day, we celebrate the relationship between parents and their children, and we recognize the importance of families spending time together. As a source of hope, guidance, stability, and love for every generation, families both teach and exemplify the … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

Americans are united by the ideals of equal justice, limited government, and the rule of law. On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day and during Constitution Week, we remember the vision and determination of the Framers to build a free society, and we celebrate the historical document they created to achieve … [read more]

On National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we honor the brave and patriotic Americans who were held as prisoners of war, and we remember those who are still missing in action. For their valor and selfless devotion to protect the country they love, our Nation owes them a debt we can never … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

I have considered the Proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of India Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the Agreement will promote, and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 of … [read more]

During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize the many Americans of Hispanic descent who have made outstanding contributions to our Nation. The rich cultural traditions of the Hispanic-American community have made a remarkable impact on American society. The diverse backgrounds of Hispanic Americans and their dedication to family have become … [read more]

Throughout history, America has counted on brave individuals willing to put on the uniform to protect our land and defend our way of life. This week we honor and recognize the many contributions members of our National Guard and Reserve make to our Nation, and we thank the civilian employers … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 13, 2007 (72 FR 53409), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2008. I hereby determine that … [read more]

September 11, 2001, was etched into America's memory when 19 terrorists attacked us with barbarity unequaled in our history. On Patriot Day, we cherish the memory of the thousands of innocent victims lost, extend our thoughts and prayers to their families, and honor the heroic men and women who risked … [read more]

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are helping to extend lifelines of learning throughout our country. During Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we pay tribute to these distinguished institutions. Our Nation's HBCUs help unlock the great potential within students by providing quality higher education to traditionally underserved communities. By … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, the Pentagon, and aboard United … [read more]

During National Days of Prayer and Remembrance, we pay special tribute to the thousands of innocent victims who died on September 11, 2001. Our Nation honors the brave citizens, service members, police officers, and firefighters who heroically responded in the face of terror. On these important days, we reflect on … [read more]

During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those whose lives have been affected by this deadly disease, and we underscore our commitment to battling ovarian cancer for the sake of women around the world. Each year, thousands of American women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Many will lose their … [read more]

During National Preparedness Month, we underscore the important responsibility Americans have to be ready for emergencies in our homes, businesses, and communities. The Department of Homeland Security's Ready campaign highlights preparedness steps, including having an emergency supply kit, making a family emergency plan, and becoming informed about different types of … [read more]

Substance abuse is an unrelenting evil that destroys lives, ruins families, and endangers neighborhoods. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we emphasize our commitment to alcohol and drug addiction prevention. This month is also an opportunity to recognize those who have had the courage to combat and overcome … [read more]

National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to fighting prostate cancer and to raise awareness about this highly treatable disease. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer found in men, and one in six men will develop it during their lifetime. The … [read more]

The opportunities of America make our land a beacon of hope for people from every corner of the world. America's minority-owned businesses contribute greatly to our economy and the richness of our country. During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we recognize minority entrepreneurs and recommit ourselves to fostering an environment where … [read more]

With vision and determination, American women have helped build our great Nation. On Women's Equality Day, we remember the dedication of women who overcame many obstacles in order to secure the right to vote. The struggle for women's rights is a story of strong women willing to take the lead … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes or institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I … [read more]

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has helped tear down barriers for millions of people living with disabilities. On the anniversary of this important legislation, our Nation underscores our commitment to ensuring that all individuals have an equal opportunity to realize their full potential. On July 26, 1990, President George … [read more]

Parents teach their children timeless values to help them make the most of life's opportunities and overcome its challenges. On Parents' Day, we pay tribute to the parents who provide their children with guidance, support, and unconditional love and who help make our country a better place. Mothers and … [read more]

The United States is founded upon the belief that every person has unalienable rights and matchless value. Throughout our Nation's history, brave patriots have made great sacrifices to protect this ideal and to advance the cause of freedom around the world. On the 60th anniversary of the integration of the … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August … [read more]

Freedom is the longing of every soul and the birthright of all mankind. During Captive Nations Week, we underscore our commitment to advancing democracy, defending liberty, and protecting human rights around the world. It is in our Nation's interest to help those who are suffering under oppressive regimes defeat the … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of the property of certain persons connected to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action … [read more]

For 100 years, the committed men and women of the Federal Bureau of Investigation have worked diligently to deliver justice and keep Americans safe. On FBI Day, we recognize the Bureau's many accomplishments and pay tribute to all who have served in its ranks with valor and dedication. The FBI … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)), beneficiary developing countries, except those designated as least-developed beneficiary developing countries or beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries as provided in section 503(c)(2)(D) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(D)), are subject … [read more]

I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), hereby find that the continuation of the exercise … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 574 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public Law 109-102), as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law 110-5), I hereby: … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and consistent with section 6(j)(4)(B) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, Public Law 96-72, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)), … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, President Clinton issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

On Father's Day, we honor our Nation's fathers for the unconditional love they give to their children and for their selfless dedication to the well-being of their families. Fathers play a unique and irreplaceable part in the lives of their children and pass along values that help children grow into … [read more]

The American flag has been our national symbol for 231 years, and it remains a beacon of freedom wherever it is flown. Since the Second Continental Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes as our flag in 1777, it has stood for freedom, justice, and the resolve of our Nation. When … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

Oceans have provided an important part of our heritage, economy, and recreation, and they are a vital resource for our country and the world. During National Oceans Month, we reaffirm our commitment to protect and wisely use these precious waters and the habitat beneath them. We have a solemn responsibility … [read more]

America's diverse musical heritage exemplifies the creativity and optimism of our Nation. During Black Music Month, we celebrate the extraordinary talents and creativity of African-American singers, musicians, and composers whose achievements have enriched our culture and enhanced our lives. For generations, African-American artists have created music that communicates across racial … [read more]

From the Appalachian Mountains to the Grand Canyon, America is blessed with places of natural beauty where our citizens can discover the full splendor of this great Nation. During Great Outdoors Month, our Nation celebrates the grandeur of our open spaces, strengthens our commitment to preserving this heritage, and reaffirms … [read more]

On Italian Independence Day, we recognize our friendship with the nation of Italy, and we celebrate the generations of Italian Americans who have made significant contributions to our national character. June 2, 1946, marks the birth of the Italian Republic, the long-awaited triumph of liberty and democracy in an ancient … [read more]

America has a duty to provide its children with the support and skills they need to become the next generation of responsible leaders. On National Child's Day, we underscore the importance of fostering the love, encouragement, and protection that empowers our children to become happy and successful adults. Children are … [read more]

Caribbean-American Heritage Month is an opportunity to show our appreciation for the many ways Caribbean Americans have contributed to our country. Caribbean Americans have helped to shape our national fabric with their vibrant traditions and their unique history. They have brightened our lives with the spirit and vitality of their … [read more]

For many Americans, owning a home represents freedom, independence, and the American dream. During National Homeownership Month, we highlight the benefits of owning a home and encourage our fellow citizens to be responsible homeowners. My Administration is committed to helping Americans achieve their dreams of homeownership. We have worked to … [read more]

National Hurricane Preparedness Week highlights the vital importance of being prepared when natural disasters strike. Tropical storms can cause destruction over entire regions and claim the lives of many of our citizens. We can help reduce vulnerability in our communities by encouraging all citizens to be prepared and to work … [read more]

On Memorial Day, we honor the heroes who have laid down their lives in the cause of freedom, resolve that they will forever be remembered by a grateful Nation, and pray that our country may always prove worthy of the sacrifices they have made. Throughout our Nation's history, our course … [read more]

On National Maritime Day, America honors our highly skilled mariners who sail the high seas, support those on the front lines of the war on terror, and promote commerce around the world. Since 1775, the United States Merchant Marine has served our country, helping America become a great maritime power. … [read more]

Freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of worship are among the liberties that Americans cherish. Our Nation fully supports the brave people who work to secure these liberties in the countries where they are denied. And on this Day of Solidarity with the Cuban People, we focus our … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, I declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (IEEPA). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

Our Nation's beautiful waterways provide opportunities for recreational activities for millions of Americans. During National Safe Boating Week, we raise awareness of the importance of practicing and promoting safe boating. Recreational boating is one of America's most popular pastimes, and it is important for every boater to take proper safety … [read more]

Free and fair trade helps secure a future of freedom and promise. During World Trade Week, we recognize the positive effects of opening markets around the world. Open markets play an integral role in America's economic progress, creating better-paying jobs, expanding consumer choices, and providing increased opportunities for American workers … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has engaged in large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September … [read more]

America's transportation system strengthens our national security and keeps our country moving. On National Defense Transportation Day and during National Transportation Week, we thank the men and women of the transportation industry for their efforts to ensure that our Nation's infrastructure operates effectively and efficiently. Innovation, investment, and imagination have … [read more]

Across our Nation, law enforcement officers carry the great responsibility of protecting their fellow citizens. On Peace Officers' Memorial Day and during Police Week, we honor these brave public servants who fight crime, violence, and terrorism, and we pay homage to the heroes who have fallen in the line of … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of … [read more]

On Mother's Day, we honor the grace, wisdom, and strength of our mothers, and we celebrate the special bonds shared between mothers and their children. Mothers work tirelessly to help their children build healthy and successful lives. Through their positive examples and countless acts of kindness, mothers teach the values … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to my authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-175), I issued Executive Order 13338, in which I declared a national emergency with respect to the actions of … [read more]

Military spouses embody the courage, nobility of duty, and love of country that inspire every American. On Military Spouse Day, we pay tribute to the husbands and wives who support their spouses in America's Armed Forces during times of war and peace. The legacy of military spouses began when colonial … [read more]

Education is the cornerstone of a hopeful tomorrow. During National Charter Schools Week, we highlight the contributions of charter schools to ensuring that our Nation's future leaders have the skills and knowledge necessary for a lifetime of achievement. - Charter schools are educational alternatives that empower families with additional choices … [read more]

The right of ordinary men and women to determine their own future, protected by the rule of law, lies at the heart of America's founding principles. As our country celebrates the 50th anniversary of Law Day, we renew our commitment to the ideals on which this great Nation was established … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under subsection 1225(a) of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

Americans who trace their ancestry to Asia and the Pacific Islands have contributed much to our Nation. During Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month, we highlight their importance to our great Nation. Asian/Pacific Americans have made our country better with their talents and hard work. Their values and commitment to family and … [read more]

Health and fitness are personal responsibilities and important national goals for our citizens. During National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, we highlight the benefits of exercise and the value of participating in sports. It is important for all Americans to participate in activities that help maintain a healthy lifestyle. Outdoor … [read more]

Jewish American Heritage Month is an opportunity to celebrate the history, culture, and faith of Jewish Americans and their contributions to our Nation. The story of the Jewish people in America is the story of America itself. When the first Jewish settlers arrived on our shores hundreds of years ago, … [read more]

On Malaria Awareness Day, our Nation recognizes all who suffer from this devastating disease, and we remember the lives lost to an illness that is entirely preventable and treatable. Today, we renew our commitment to lead the world toward the urgent goal and noble mission of turning the tide against … [read more]

During Older Americans Month, we recognize the many ways older citizens have enriched our Nation through their character, wisdom, and love. Our country remains strong because of the foundation our elders have helped lay. This year's Older Americans Month theme, “Working Together for Strong, Healthy, and Supportive Communities,” highlights the … [read more]

Through countless acts of kindness, volunteers across America are changing our Nation for the better. During National Volunteer Week, we recognize those who take the time to help their fellow citizens realize the full potential of America. Through volunteer work, Americans can demonstrate the kindness and generosity that make our … [read more]

Americans believe that every man, woman, and child has unalienable rights, dignity, and matchless value. Advancing these ideals was the honorable vision of our Founders and the mission that helped shape this great country. On Loyalty Day, we celebrate the legacy of freedom and the shared ideals that bind us … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 634(d) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Div. J, Public Law 110-161), I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions … [read more]

America trusts in the abiding power of prayer and asks for the wisdom to discern God's will in times of joy and of trial. As we observe this National Day of Prayer, we recognize our dependence on the Almighty, we thank Him for the many blessings He has bestowed upon … [read more]

In communities across America, small business owners are working hard to turn their dreams into enterprises. Small Business Week is a time to celebrate the many achievements of small business owners, entrepreneurs, and employees, who contribute to the vitality and prosperity of our Nation and create new job opportunities for … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA … [read more]

A hopeful society helps ensure that its citizens develop the character, knowledge, and skills they need to succeed. On Education and Sharing Day, we underscore our dedication to encouraging our Nation's youth to build a solid foundation for a lifetime of accomplishment. Education and Sharing Day pays tribute to the … [read more]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, “There is nothing so American as our National Parks.” During National Park Week, we underscore our commitment to conserving these magnificent places and recognize the many employees and volunteers who give their time and energy to keep them beautiful for all Americans to enjoy. … [read more]

During National Crime Victims' Rights Week we highlight our dedication to protecting and strengthening the rights of crime victims and their families. My Administration is committed to providing services and resources for victims of crime so that they can find justice, hope, and healing in their lives. To assist victims … [read more]

On Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, we underscore the importance of a peaceful, democratic, and prosperous Western Hemisphere where our common values continue to strengthen friendships, advance freedom, and encourage fair trade. The love of liberty is deeply rooted in our hemisphere. In the earliest days of … [read more]

America is blessed to have brave men and women willing to step forward to defend our freedoms and keep us safe. The members of the United States Armed Forces have proudly held fast against determined and ruthless enemies, protected our citizens from harm, and freed millions from oppression. On National … [read more]

For 25 years, Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) has given school children across America an opportunity to gain the skills they need to avoid involvement in drugs, gangs, and violence. On National D.A.R.E. Day, we recognize those individuals who teach America's children how to resist peer pressure and live productive, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1006(e) of the America COMPETES Act (Public Law 110-69) (the “Act”), I hereby designate the Committee on Technology of the National Science and Technology … [read more]

Americans of Scottish descent have made enduring contributions to our Nation with their hard work, faith, and values. On National Tartan Day, we celebrate the spirit and character of Scottish Americans and recognize their many contributions to our culture and our way of life. Scotland and the United States have … [read more]

During Cancer Control Month, we honor cancer victims and survivors, raise awareness of the impact cancer has on our citizens, and underscore our commitment to battling this deadly disease. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States, and we remain committed to making the medical advances necessary … [read more]

Children are the hope and promise of our Nation, and our society has a special duty to ensure young Americans get the care and attention they need to succeed in life. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we underscore our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect so that all … [read more]

Every human life has matchless value, and during National Donate Life Month, we reaffirm our commitment to raising awareness about the importance of organ donation. We also express our appreciation to those who have donated organs, tissue, and marrow. Thousands of Americans are currently on the waiting list for an … [read more]

During National Fair Housing Month, our Nation commemorates the 40th anniversary of the Fair Housing Act and reaffirms our dedication to maintaining equal access to housing for every American. On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Fair Housing Act. This important legislation was one of a series … [read more]

1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to the President such modifications … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 1(b) of Public Law 107-57, as amended, I hereby determine and certify, with respect to Pakistan, that a waiver of section 608 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

Pursuant to section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)) (the “Act”), I determine that state trading enterprises account for a significant share of Ukraine's exports and goods that compete with imports into Ukraine. I further determine that such state trading enterprises unduly burden … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 1821(c) of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission … [read more]

On Greek Independence Day, we recognize the important contributions Greek Americans have made to our national character, celebrate the deep friendship between our two countries, and honor the anniversary of the Greek call for independence. The United States and Greece share a close relationship based on our common belief in … [read more]

Since 1962, National Poison Prevention Week has helped to raise awareness about the dangers of potentially poisonous medicines and household chemicals. During this week, we underscore our commitment to protect our fellow citizens from accidental poisonings and to educate families about the preventive steps that can be taken to ensure … [read more]

During Women's History Month, we celebrate the courage, foresight, and resolve of women who have strengthened our democracy. America has been transformed by strong women whose contributions shaped the history of our country. Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic, and she inspired generations of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 650(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that it is important … [read more]

Since the earliest days of our Republic, Irish Americans have enriched our culture with their faith, values, and hard work. During the month of March, we celebrate the contributions of Americans who trace their ancestry back to Ireland's shores. Many of the sons and daughters of Erin came to America … [read more]

As we face new challenges in the 21st century, we must work to ensure that Americans are kept safe in the marketplace. During National Consumer Protection Week, as my Administration works with Congress to improve our consumer product safety system, we also encourage Americans to make informed financial decisions and … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, I declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to … [read more]

In 1881, Clara Barton established the American Red Cross, and for years afterward, she led that organization in its noble cause to provide healing, comfort, and hope to those in need. Today, her legacy lives on through the millions of individuals who have answered the timeless call to serve others. … [read more]

Early diagnosis and proper treatment of eye disease can help preserve the gift of sight. During Save Your Vision Week, we encourage Americans to receive routine vision screenings and to understand the importance of keeping their eyes healthy and safe. Today, millions of Americans live with some form of eye … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228)(the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to be transmitted to the Congress pursuant to section 603 of that Act regarding noncompliance by the Palestine … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228)(the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to be transmitted to the Congress pursuant to section 603 of that Act regarding noncompliance by the Palestine … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, you are directed to perform the function of the President as described under section 802 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons contributing to the conflict in Cote d'Ivoire, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and section 1083(d) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (the “Act”), I hereby determine that: • All provisions of … [read more]

Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women in the United States. As we observe American Heart Month, we renew our commitment to raising awareness of the serious impact of cardiovascular disease, and we encourage all citizens to take steps to help prevent it. - By … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the United States of America and the Republic of Turkey Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed at Ankara on July 26, 2000, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of interested agencies. I approve the proposed Agreement and have determined … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

During National African American History Month, we honor the achievements and celebrate the rich heritage of African Americans. Throughout our Nation's history, African Americans from all walks of life have offered their talents to the betterment of American society. Scholars such as Frederick Douglass and W.E.B. DuBois were early leaders … [read more]

People across this great Nation have heard the universal call to love a neighbor and are using their time and talents to make a difference in the lives of others. On the sixth anniversary of the USA Freedom Corps, we celebrate the spirit of service in America and honor the … [read more]

On National Sanctity of Human Life Day, we recognize that each life has inherent dignity and matchless value, and we reaffirm our steadfast determination to defend the weakest and most vulnerable members of our society. America was founded on the belief that all men are created equal and have an … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 10(d)(1) of the United Nations Participation Act of 1945, as amended (22 U.S.C. 287e-2(d)(1)), I hereby determine that transfer to the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) … [read more]

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., changed our Nation forever through his leadership, service, and clarity of vision. On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, we honor the lasting legacy of this great American, remember the ideals for which he fought, and recommit ourselves to ensuring that our country's promise … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

Thomas Jefferson counted the freedom of worship as one of America's greatest blessings. He said it was “a liberty deemed in other countries incompatible with good government, and yet proved by our experience to be its best support.” On Religious Freedom Day, we celebrate the 1786 passage of the Virginia … [read more]

1. Section 1206(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3006(a)) authorizes the President to proclaim modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) based on the recommendations of the U.S. International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) under section 1205 of … [read more]

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