A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
233 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2010

Our Nation was founded on the enduring principles of equality and freedom for all. As Americans, it is our solemn responsibility to honor and uphold this legacy. Yet, around the world and even within the United States, victims of modern slavery are deprived of the most basic right of freedom. … [read more]

Stalking is a serious and pervasive crime that affects millions of Americans each year in communities throughout our country. Though we have gained a better understanding of stalking and its prevalence since the passage of the Violence Against Women Act in 1994, this dangerous and criminal behavior is still often … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA … [read more]

Across our Nation, mentors steer our youth through challenging times and support their journey into adulthood. During National Mentoring Month, we honor these important individuals who unlock the potential and nurture the talent of our country, and we encourage more Americans to reach out and mentor young people in their … [read more]

On December 17, 1903, after years of determination and creativity, Orville and Wilbur Wright’s wooden aircraft sailed the steady winds of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina and conquered the age-old dream of manned flight. That day, the two brothers from Dayton, Ohio, could only imagine what we now know—that those moments … [read more]

On November 29, 2010, I proposed a two-year freeze in the pay of civilian Federal employees as the first of a number of difficult actions required to put our Nation on a sound fiscal footing. As I said then, Federal workers are not just a line in a budget. They … [read more]

To honor the legacy of one of America's greatest diplomats and to reaffirm our commitment to diplomacy, I hereby direct you to establish the Richard C. Holbrooke Award for Diplomacy, to be awarded annually. You are authorized to take all necessary steps to establish an appropriate award program under the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate toyou the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 7301 of title 5,United States Code, with respect to providing … [read more]

In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. More than 60 years later, the Declaration reflects the world’s commitment to the idea that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” As Americans, this self-evident truth lies at the heart … [read more]

Last year, as the world prepared for a pandemic of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, we were reminded of the severity and unpredictability of this serious disease. Thousands of Americans suffered serious complications from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in hospitalization or even death. Tragically, influenza and flu-related complications … [read more]

Our public lands represent the American spirit and reflect our history, culture, and deep respect for wild and beautiful places. As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, we remember that this breathtaking terrain holds great significance to our Nation. Stretching from the … [read more]

Nearly 70 years ago, on December 7, 1941, our service members and civilians awoke on a quiet Sunday to a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Japanese forces. Employing whatever weapons were at hand, those who defended Hawaii that fateful morning stand as examples of the selfless heroism that has … [read more]

America stands in solidarity with the growing number of nations around the world that have committed themselves to ending unequal treatment of persons with disabilities. On International Day of Persons with Disabilities, we acknowledge the contributions of women and men with disabilities around the world, and we recognize our charge … [read more]

Every day, millions of Americans travel on our Nation’s roadways. Thousands of these drivers and passengers tragically lose their lives each year because of drunk, drugged, or distracted driving. During National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, we recommit to preventing the loss of life by practicing safe driving practices and reminding … [read more]

From the air we breathe to the water we drink, the quality of our environment has a profound effect on our public health, the well-being of future generations, and the vitality of our economy. Just four decades ago, smog choked communities across America, pollution clotted numerous waterways, and our Nation … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Public Law 111-117), as carried forward by the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA), title IV of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110 457), … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 908(a)(3) of the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000, title IX, Public Law 106-387, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 7207(a)(3) (TSRA), I hereby determine it is … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 80,000 refugees to the United States during Fiscal Year … [read more]

During Critical Infrastructure Protection Month, we highlight the vast network of systems and structures that sustain the vigor and vitality of our Nation. Critical infrastructure includes the assets, networks, and functions—both physical and virtual—essential to the security, economic welfare, public health, and safety of the United States. The Department of … [read more]

This year marks the 35th anniversary of the Helsinki Final Act, a seminal document tying lasting security among states with respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms within states. With the signing of the Act on August 1, 1975, the United States, Canada, the Soviet Union, and the countries of … [read more]

On this World AIDS Day, as we approach the thirtieth year of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, we reflect on the many Americans and others around the globe lost to this devastating disease, and pledge our support to the 33 million people worldwide who live with HIV/AIDS. We also recommit to building … [read more]

A beloved American tradition, Thanksgiving Day offers us the opportunity to focus our thoughts on the grace that has been extended to our people and our country. This spirit brought together the newly arrived Pilgrims and the Wampanoag tribe—who had been living and thriving around Plymouth, Massachusetts for thousands of … [read more]

Like generations before them, today’s American families rely on their love and care for each other to face challenges. During National Family Week, we celebrate the resilient spirit of America’s families and their role in building vibrant communities and a strong Nation. My Administration remains committed to finding solutions to … [read more]

On National Child’s Day, we celebrate America’s children and rededicate ourselves to helping them reach for their dreams and realize their full potential. To build a strong foundation for our children’s future, we must support their health and development and ensure that they receive a high-quality education that will prepare … [read more]

America’s farms have long been vital to our Nation. They contribute to our public health, safeguard our environmental resources, and stand at the forefront of our country’s path toward energy independence. We must continue supporting the vital relationship between American farms and families, and work to ensure that farming remains … [read more]

Education is essential to our success as both a people and a Nation. During American Education Week, we rededicate ourselves to providing a complete and competitive education for every student, from cradle through career. In an increasingly interconnected world, our leadership and prosperity depend on the standard and quality of … [read more]

Entrepreneurs embody the promise that lies at the heart of America—that if you have a good idea and work hard enough, the American dream is within your reach. During National Entrepreneurship Week, we renew our commitment to supporting the entrepreneurs who power the engine of our Nation’s economy. These intrepid … [read more]

Each small act of conservation, when combined with other innumerable deeds across the country, can have an enormous impact on the health of our environment. On America Recycles Day, we celebrate the individuals, communities, local governments, and businesses that work together to recycle waste and develop innovative ways to manage … [read more]

The Berlin Wall once stood as a painful barrier between family and friends, a dark symbol of oppression and stifled liberties. On November 9, 1989, in a powerful affirmation of freedom, Germans from both sides of the wall joined to tear down the hated blockade. World Freedom Day commemorates the … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On Veterans Day, we come together to pay tribute to the men and women who have worn the uniform of the United States Armed Forces. Americans across this land commemorate the patriots who have risked their lives to preserve the liberty of our Nation, the families who support them, and … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

Alzheimer’s disease tragically robs individuals of their memories and leads to progressive mental and physical impairments. This eventually fatal disease represents a serious and growing threat to the health of our Nation, impacting millions of Americans and their families. During National Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Month, we recommit to improving its … [read more]

Today, nearly 24 million Americans have diabetes, and thousands more are diagnosed each day. During National Diabetes Month, we recommit to educating Americans about the risk factors and warning signs of diabetes, and we honor all those living with or lost to this disease. Diabetes can lead to severe … [read more]

Every day, family members, friends, neighbors, and concerned individuals across America provide essential attention and assistance to their loved ones. Many individuals in need of care—including children, elders, and persons with disabilities—would have difficulty remaining safely in their homes and community without the support of their relatives and caregivers. Caregivers … [read more]

For millennia before Europeans settled in North America, the indigenous peoples of this continent flourished with vibrant cultures and were the original stewards of the land. From generation to generation, they handed down invaluable cultural knowledge and rich traditions, which continue to thrive in Native American communities across our country … [read more]

Giving a child a strong foundation—a home, a family to love, and a safe place to grow—is one of life’s greatest and most generous gifts. Through adoption, both domestic and international, Americans from across our country have provided secure environments for children who need them, and these families have benefited … [read more]

During National Hospice Month, we recognize the dignity hospice care can provide to patients who need it most, and the professionals, volunteers, and family members who bring peace to individuals in their final days. Hospice care gives medical services, emotional support, and spiritual resources to people facing life-limiting illnesses. It … [read more]

We owe each day of security and freedom that we enjoy to the members of our Armed Forces and their families. Behind our brave service men and women, there are family members and loved ones who share in their sacrifice and provide unending support. During Military Family Month, we celebrate … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma and Zimbabwe, not to provide certain assistance for those countries' governments for … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-28) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug-producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

Sixty-five years ago, 51 nations came together in the aftermath of one of history’s most devastating wars to rededicate themselves to peace, justice, and progress. The founders of the United Nations vowed to work together to ensure that the horrors seen in World War II would never be repeated. On … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain … [read more]

Since the first communities and settlements in our Nation, forests and their products have played a vital role in our growth and economic development. Forests have also enhanced the splendor of our surroundings, served as wildlife habitats, provided places for recreational activities, and offered serene settings for contemplation. As we … [read more]

America’s strength, even in the most challenging of times, is found in the spirit and character of our people. During National Character Counts Week, we reflect upon the values of equality, fairness, and compassion that lie at the heart of our country. These qualities resonate in the countless humanitarian acts … [read more]

The white cane, in addition to being a practical mobility tool, serves as a symbol of dignity, freedom, and independence for individuals who are blind or visually impaired. On White Cane Safety Day, our Nation celebrates the immeasurable contributions the Americans who use canes have made as valued members of … [read more]

In the five centuries since Christopher Columbus, a son of Genoa, Italy, first set sail across the Atlantic Ocean, countless individuals have followed the course he charted to seek a new life in America. Since that time, generations of Italian Americans have helped shape our society and steer the course … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

Over five centuries ago, Christopher Columbus set sail across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a new trade route to India. The findings of this explorer from Genoa, Italy, would change the map of the world and forever alter the course of human history. When Columbus’s crewmembers came ashore in … [read more]

No child should have to learn on an empty stomach. Nearly 65 years ago, America made protecting the health of our children a national priority by developing the National School Lunch Program. This groundbreaking program has prevented hunger and promoted education by enabling our young people to have access to … [read more]

Over 1,000 years ago, the lure of discovery led Leif Erikson—a son of Iceland and grandson of Norway—and his crew on an ambitious exploration of present-day Greenland and Canada. Centuries later, after a months-long ocean voyage, a group of Norwegians landed in New York City on October 9, 1825, the … [read more]

From before our Nation’s founding until today, daring individuals have fought to defend America with unwavering devotion. Casimir Pulaski was a Polish patriot, yet he laid down his life in defense of American independence during the Revolutionary War. Each year, on October 11, Americans pause to remember this champion of … [read more]

The health and well-being of a child is one of our most challenging, yet important, responsibilities, and we have an obligation to ensure that all our children can live, learn, and play in safe and healthy environments. On Child Health Day, we reaffirm the critical importance of the quality health … [read more]

In communities across our Nation, physician assistants serve tirelessly everyday to care for Americans and fulfill a critical function in our health care system. They provide important medical attention and treatment to patients and their loved ones, and can be the principal care provider in rural or inner-city clinics, and … [read more]

The American story has been written by those who have come to our shores in search of freedom, opportunity, and the chance at a better life. The German men and women who braved numerous perils to cross the Atlantic long ago left a legacy of millions of Americans of German … [read more]

During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of fire safety and awareness, and we pay tribute to our firefighters, volunteers, and first responders who put themselves in harm’s way to protect our lives, homes, and communities every day. Each of us can take precautions in our homes to safeguard … [read more]

America’s digital infrastructure is critical to laying the foundation for our economic prosperity, government efficiency, and national security. We stand at a transformational moment in history, when our technologically interconnected world presents both immense promise and potential risks. The same technology that provides new opportunities for economic growth and the … [read more]

Throughout history, the arts and humanities have helped men and women around the globe grapple with the most challenging questions and come to know the most basic truths. In our increasingly interconnected world, the arts play an important role in both shaping the character that defines us and reminding us … [read more]

While considerable progress has been made in the fight against breast cancer, it remains the most frequently diagnosed type of non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. This year alone, over 200,000 Americans will be diagnosed and nearly 40,000 lives will be … [read more]

As Americans, we understand employment and economic security are critical to fulfilling our hopes and aspirations. We also know we are stronger when our country and economy can benefit from the skills and talents of all our citizens. No individual in our Nation should face unnecessary barriers to success, … [read more]

In the 16 years since the passage of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), we have broken the silence surrounding domestic violence to reach thousands of survivors, prevent countless incidences of abuse, and save untold numbers of lives. While these are critical achievements, domestic violence remains a devastating public health … [read more]

America’s energy resources are inextricably linked to our continued prosperity, security, and environmental health. When it comes to our Nation’s energy future, we face fundamental choices between action and inaction, between embracing the possibilities of a new clean energy economy and settling for the status quo, and between leading the … [read more]

In order to compete in the global economy, the United States needs the most educated workforce in the world. The high-wage jobs of the 21st century will require more knowledge and skills than the jobs of the past. We therefore must develop innovative strategies to train more Americans with the … [read more]

Committed families shape and guide our children, preparing them for every obstacle they may encounter and encouraging them to overcome life’s most demanding challenges. Today, our young people are exposed to negative influences that can lead to dangerous decisions, such as abusing drugs and alcohol. When parents, loved ones, and … [read more]

As Americans, the bond we have with our land is traceable to our earliest ancestors and etched into the character of our Nation. From the rocky shoals of New England to the rugged mountains of the West, the natural beauty and great diversity of our open spaces draw millions to … [read more]

From majestic mountain ranges to beloved neighborhood parks, Americans enjoy the natural places our ancestors have celebrated and protected for centuries. Our public lands represent the American spirit and reflect our shared experience—our history, our culture, and our deep love for wild and beautiful places. Every September, thousands of Americans … [read more]

In a long line of heroes stretching from the greens of Lexington and Concord to the mountains of Afghanistan, selfless patriots have defended our lives and liberties with valor and honor. They have been ordinary Americans who loved their country so profoundly that they were willing to give their lives … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., I hereby: 1. Determine that the continuation of U.S. commercial air transportation is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy … [read more]

Since our Nation’s founding over 200 years ago, patriotic Americans have answered the call of duty when our country has needed it most. As family members, employees, and leaders in their communities, members of the National Guard and Reserve give of themselves at home and abroad to preserve the American … [read more]

Every day, the lives of Americans are touched by the hard work and dedication of our Nation’s farmers, ranchers, and farmworkers. The food they produce through their tireless efforts fuels our Nation, nourishes our bodies, and sustains millions at home and around the globe. As we celebrate National Farm Safety … [read more]

Education is critical to our children’s future and to the continued growth and prosperity of our Nation. To maintain our leadership in the global economy, we have an obligation to provide a high-quality education to our children and ensure they can obtain higher education and job training. Currently, Hispanics are … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby order as follows: I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the functions vested in the President by sections … [read more]

The summer of 1787 was a watershed moment in our Nation’s history. In the span of four short months, delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia established a Constitution for the United States of America, signing the finished charter on September 17, 1787. With their signatures, and subsequent ratification of … [read more]

“Until every story ends” is a solemn promise to those who wear the uniform of the United States that they will never be left behind or forgotten. On National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we pay tribute to the American men and women who never returned home from combat, to those who … [read more]

From the early settlers of the New World to those reaching for the American dream today, Hispanics have shaped and strengthened our country. During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we pause to celebrate the immeasurable contributions these individuals have made to our Nation—from its inception to its latest chapters. Reflecting the … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the President declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I herebydelegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section 107(a) of theWilliam Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of … [read more]

Nine years ago, the United States of America suffered an unprecedented national tragedy. On September 11, 2001, nearly 3,000 individuals from across our Nation and from more than 90 others, lost their lives in acts of terrorism aimed at the heart of our country. The Americans we lost came … [read more]

Each year, thousands of children face the battle against cancer with inspiring hope and incredible bravery. When a child is diagnosed with cancer, an entire family and community are affected. The devotion of parents, grandparents, loved ones, and friends creates a treasured network of support for these courageous children. During … [read more]

Early in our Nation’s history, higher education was not possible for most African Americans, and simple lessons in reading and writing were often conducted in secret. With a unique mission to meet the educational needs of African Americans, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have been valued resources for our … [read more]

In commemoration of the tragedies of September 11, 2001, we come together as Americans each September to honor the memory of the women, men, and children lost in New York City, in rural Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon. We renew our commitment to those who lost the comfort and companionship … [read more]

Throughout our history, American families have been guided and strengthened by the support of devoted grandparents. These mentors have a special place in our homes and communities, ensuring the stories and traditions of our heritage are passed down through generations. On National Grandparents Day, we honor those who have helped … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1622(d), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency previously declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on … [read more]

Working Americans are the foundation of our Nation’s continued economic success and prosperity. From constructing the first transcontinental railroad to shaping our city skylines, they have built our country and propelled it forward. Through great innovation and perseverance, our labor force has forged America as a land of limitless possibility … [read more]

One of the greatest responsibilities we have as a Nation is to safeguard the health and well-being of our children. We now face a national childhood obesity crisis, with nearly one in every three of America’s children being overweight or obese. There are concrete steps we can take right away … [read more]

Each day brings new opportunities for personal growth, renewal, and transformation to millions of Americans who have chosen to forge a path toward recovery from addiction to drugs or alcohol. While addiction can destroy self-confidence, family ties, and friendships, recovery can restore the promise of a brighter tomorrow. During National … [read more]

While we have made great strides in the battle against ovarian cancer, this disease continues to claim more lives than any other gynecologic cancer. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we honor all those lost to and living with ovarian cancer, and we renew our commitment to developing effective screening … [read more]

Although its mortality rate has steadily fallen in the last decade, prostate cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. This year alone, nearly 218,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more than 32,000 men will die from this disease. … [read more]

For centuries, the American spirit of exploration and discovery has led us to experience the majesty of our Nation’s wilderness. From raging rivers to serene prairies, from mountain peaks slicing the skyline to forests teeming with life, our Nation’s landscapes have provided wonder, inspiration, and strength to all Americans. Many … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 11, 2009 (74 FR 47431, September 16, 2009), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2010. I … [read more]

During National Preparedness Month, we stress the importance of strengthening the security and resiliency of our Nation through systematic preparation for the full range of hazards threatening the United States in the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, pandemic disease, and acts of terrorism. This year marks the fifth … [read more]

Ninety years ago, on August 26, 1920, the ratification of the 19th Amendment to our Constitution was completed, guaranteeing women the right to vote, renewing our commitment to equality and justice, and marking a turning point in our Nation's history. As we celebrate this important milestone and the achievements and … [read more]

Since our Nation’s founding, the United States has been a beacon of economic opportunity and limitless possibility. America’s strength and resiliency have relied on the vision of our entrepreneurs and small business owners, whose tireless work ethic has defined the character of our country. During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we … [read more]

On August 14, 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law the Social Security Act to protect ordinary Americans “against the loss of a job and against poverty-ridden old age.” Our Nation was entrenched in the Great Depression. Unemployment neared 20 percent, and millions of Americans struggled to provide for … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 of … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August … [read more]

America’s community health centers are a vital component of our health care system, providing underserved communities access to coordinated primary and preventive care. During National Health Center Week, we recognize the important work of community health centers for their role in providing quality, accessible, and affordable patient care as we … [read more]

When President Lyndon B. Johnson signed Medicare and Medicaid into law on July 30, 1965, millions of Americans and about half our Nation’s seniors lacked health care coverage, unable to afford basic health care services or weather a medical emergency. The signing of Medicare forged a promise with older Americans—that … [read more]

At a time when so many American families are struggling to make ends meet, I am committed to making sure the Federal Government is spending the taxpayers' money wisely and carefully, and cutting costs wherever possible. I am committed to ending programs that do not work, streamlining those that do, … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes or institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). … [read more]

Today we celebrate the signing of the Military Armistice Agreement at Panmunjom and we honor our servicemembers who fought and died for freedom and democracy in the Korean War. This year marks the 60th anniversary of the start of the Korean War and the birth of an enduring friendship between … [read more]

When the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was signed into law in 1990, a founding truth of our Nation was realized for persons living with disabilities—that all our citizens are entitled to the same privileges, pursuits, and civil rights. As we mark the 20th anniversary of this historic legislation, we … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States, including the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (Title I of PublicLaw 98-373) (the “Act”), I hereby assign to the National Scienceand Technology Council (NSTC) responsibility to coordinate activities assigned insections 107 … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of the property of certain persons connected to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took … [read more]

In 1959, President Eisenhower issued the first Captive Nations Proclamation in solidarity with those living without personal or political autonomy behind the Iron Curtain. Since that time, once-captive nations have broken free to establish civil liberties, open markets, and allow their people access to information. However, even as more nations … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section 3134 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the following functions and authorities: •The function to make the specified reports to the Congress under 22 U.S.C. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Chairman of the Broadcasting Board of Governors, in coordination with the Secretary of State, the functions conferred upon … [read more]

Each year Federal civilian employees are injured or fall ill on the job in significant numbers. Although the Federal Government has made progress in reducing workplace injuries and illnesses in recent years, its workers (excluding those employed by the U.S. Postal Service) still filed more than 79,000 new claims and … [read more]

As we approach 30 years from the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, new actions are needed to prevent HIV infection and better serve people living with HIV. The actions we take now will build upon a legacy of global leadership, national commitment, and sustained efforts on … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory and longstanding service of Senator Robert C. Byrd, President pro tempore of the Senate, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States … [read more]

The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the worst environmental disaster America has ever faced. The oil spill represents just the latest blow to an area that has already suffered significant hardship. In addition to fighting the spill, conducting environmental cleanup, and ensuring such a crisis does not … [read more]

America's future competitiveness and global technology leadership depend, in part, upon the availability of additional spectrum. The world is going wireless, and we must not fall behind. The resurgence of American productivity growth that started in the 1990s largely reflects investments by American companies, the public sector, and citizens in … [read more]

I have today signed into law H.R. 3962, the “Preservation of Access to Care for Medicare Beneficiaries and Pension Relief Act of 2010”, which averts a 21.3 percent reduction in the Medicare physician fee schedule and replaces it with a 2.2 percent increase through November 2010. By this memorandum, I … [read more]

From the first moments of life, the bond forged between a father and a child is sacred. Whether patching scraped knees or helping with homework, dads bring joy, instill values, and introduce wonders into the lives of their children. Father’s Day is a special time to honor the men who … [read more]

On World Refugee Day, we honor the contributions and resilience of those forced to flee from their homelands due to violence, persecution, or natural disasters. The hard-earned wisdom, diverse experiences, and unceasing courage of refugees enrich our Nation and strengthen our unique narrative—that America stands as a beacon of hope … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C.2601), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is important to the … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

My Administration is committed to eliminating waste, fraud, and abuse in Federal programs, including reducing and recapturing erroneous payments—a commitment I reinforced in Executive Order 13520 of November 20, 2009, and in a memorandum to the heads of executive departments and agencies (agencies) of March 10, 2010. While identifying and … [read more]

My Administration is committed to reducing the undue influence of special interests that for too long has shaped the national agenda and drowned out the voices of ordinary Americans. Special interests exert this disproportionate influence, in part, by relying on lobbyists who have special access that is not available to … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade … [read more]

Throughout our history, American women have played a vital role in the growth and vitality of our Nation’s economy. They have tirelessly balanced responsibilities to work, family, and community, strengthening our economic leadership and enriching our national life. Today, there are more women in America’s workforce than ever before, yet … [read more]

Two hundred years ago, King Kamehameha the Great brought the Hawaiian Islands together under a unified government. His courage and leadership earned him a legacy as the “Napoleon of the Pacific,” and today his humanity is preserved in Ke Kanawai Mamalahoe, or “the Law of the Splintered Paddle.” This law … [read more]

When the Second Continental Congress adopted the American flag on June 14, 1777, the thirteen stripes alternating red and white, and thirteen white stars in a blue field, represented “a new constellation.” On Flag Day, and throughout National Flag Week, we celebrate its lasting luminosity, and the enduring American story … [read more]

On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the current existence and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

My Administration is committed to eliminating all forms of Government waste and to leading by example as our Nation transitions to a clean energy economy. For decades, the Federal Government, the largest property owner and energy user in the United States, has managed more real estate than necessary to effectively … [read more]

Since our Nation’s founding, America’s sons and daughters have given their lives in service to our country. From Concord and Gettysburg to Marne and Normandy, from Inchon and Khe Sanh to Baghdad and Kandahar, they departed our world as heroes and gave their lives for a cause greater than themselves. … [read more]

Music can tell a story, assuage our sorrows, provide blessing and redemption, and express a soul’s sublime and powerful beauty. It inspires us daily, giving voice to the human spirit. For many, including the African-American community, music unites individuals through a shared heritage. During African-American Music Appreciation Month, we celebrate … [read more]

America’s vast and varied outdoor spaces are a source of great national pride, and we have long strived to protect them for future generations. Our lands and waters provide countless opportunities for exploration, recreation, and reflection, whether in solitude or with family and friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew … [read more]

As Americans, it is our birthright that all people are created equal and deserve the same rights, privileges, and opportunities. Since our earliest days of independence, our Nation has striven to fulfill that promise. An important chapter in our great, unfinished story is the movement for fairness and equality on … [read more]

Our Nation is linked to the Caribbean by our geography as well as our shared past and common aspirations. During National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, we pay tribute to the diverse cultures and immeasurable contributions of all Americans who trace their heritage to the Caribbean. Throughout our history, immigrants from Caribbean … [read more]

Each year during National Oceans Month, we rededicate ourselves to protect the Earth’s dominant feature and precious resource. In 2010, this annual observance falls at a time of environmental crisis, as we continue our relentless efforts to stop and contain the oil spill threatening the Gulf Coast region. The oil … [read more]

For far too long, many of our Government's hard-working, dedicated LGBT employees have been denied equal access to the basic rights and benefits their colleagues enjoy. This kind of systemic inequality undermines the health, well-being, and security not just of our Federal workforce, but also of their families and communities. … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the lawsof the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assignto you the functions of the President under section 203 of the Public Health Service Act,as amended by Public Law … [read more]

Small business owners embody the spirit of entrepreneurship and strong work ethic that lie at the heart of the American dream. They are the backbone of our Nation’s economy, they employ tens of millions of workers, and, in the past 15 years, they have created the majority of new private … [read more]

Each year during hurricane season, Americans living in our coastal and inland communities face the danger of these powerful storms. From high winds and storm surges to tornadoes and flooding, the hazards of hurricanes can destroy communities and devastate lives, and we must aggressively prepare our shores and protect our … [read more]

Our Nation’s waterways provide endless opportunities for family recreation, exercise, or moments of quiet solitude and reflection. As the weather warms and people prepare to spend time on the water, let us recommit during National Safe Boating Week to practicing safe techniques so boaters of all ages can enjoy this … [read more]

Even before our Nation declared independence, our forebears recognized the importance of merchant ships and seafarers to our economic and national security. Since 1775, America’s maritime fleet has risen to the challenges before them and worked to meet our country’s needs in times of peace and war alike. On National … [read more]

America has the opportunity to lead the world in the development of a new generation of clean cars and trucks through innovative technologies and manufacturing that will spur economic growth and create high-quality domestic jobs, enhance our energy security, and improve our environment. We already have made significant strides toward … [read more]

For our Nation to compete and win in the 21st century, we must rebuild our economy on a stronger, more balanced foundation. Part of that effort will require us to boost our exports, which are critical for our long-term prosperity and which support millions of American jobs. World Trade Week … [read more]

The transportation networks of early America connected our rapidly growing Nation with natural waterways and dirt roads, making travel difficult and time-consuming. In the time since, undeveloped paths have given way to iron and concrete thoroughfares, and our modern transportation system has profoundly shaped our landscape, communities, commerce, and culture. … [read more]

America’s Armed Forces represent the very best of our national character. They have answered the call to defend our Nation, and their service and sacrifice humble us all. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to these patriots who risk their lives, sometimes giving their last full measure of devotion, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 722(b)(2) of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (section 11 of Public Law 111-67; 50 App. U.S.C. 2171)(the “Act”), I hereby designate the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Defense as rotating Chairpersons of the Defense Production … [read more]

Every day of the year, at all hours of the day and night, we rely on emergency medical services (EMS) professionals and volunteers for critical care in our homes, on our roads, in our hospitals, and wherever needs exist. EMS teams serve all Americans, standing ready to respond at a … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma had committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested departments and agencies. I have determined that the performance of the Agreement will promote, … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed in Moscow on May 6, 2008, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested … [read more]

In recent decades, our Nation has made extraordinary progress in promoting women’s health issues. However, far too many women remain underserved and we must continue working to ensure all women can access medical services, receive fair treatment, and make healthy choices. During National Women’s Health Week, we recommit to breaking … [read more]

Generations of mothers have labored tirelessly and selflessly to support and guide their children and families. Their loving, devoted efforts have broadened horizons for their children and opened doors of opportunity for our Nation’s daughters and granddaughters. On Mother’s Day, we pay tribute to these women who have given so … [read more]

As a Nation, we rely on law enforcement officers to keep our neighborhoods safe, enforce our laws, and respond in times of crisis. These men and women sustain peace and order across America, and we look to them as models of courage and integrity. This week, we honor their extraordinary … [read more]

When Americans answer the call to serve in our Armed Forces, a sacred trust is forged. Our men and women in uniform take on the duty of protecting us all, and their spouses and families also help shoulder this important responsibility. As we mark Military Spouse Appreciation Day, we reaffirm … [read more]

To deliver the quality services and results the American people expect and deserve, the Federal Government must recruit and hire highly qualified employees, and public service should be a career of choice for the most talented Americans. Yet the complexity and inefficiency of today's Federal hiring process deters many highly … [read more]

In 1883, the Jewish American poet Emma Lazarus composed a sonnet, entitled “The New Colossus,” to help raise funds for erecting the Statue of Liberty. Twenty years later, a plaque was affixed to the completed statue, inscribed with her words: “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning … [read more]

Throughout our history, whether in times of great joy and thanksgiving, or in times of great challenge and uncertainty, Americans have turned to prayer. In prayer, we have expressed gratitude and humility, sought guidance and forgiveness, and received inspiration and assistance, both in good times and in bad. On this … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003, Public Law 108-175, the President issued Executive Order 13338, in which he declared a national emergency with respect to the actions … [read more]

The 2010 Winter Olympics inspired people around the globe as they watched elite athletes push their bodies to the limit. Olympic competition showcases the vibrancy that physical activity can add to a person’s life. Exercise strengthens both body and mind, and maintaining good health can help prevent injury and disease. … [read more]

For centuries, America’s story has been tied to the Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed this vast ocean, seeking better lives and opportunities, and weaving their rich heritage into our cultural tapestry. During Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, we celebrate the immeasurable contributions these diverse … [read more]

Our Nation’s future depends on the education we provide to our sons and daughters, and charter schools across America serve as laboratories for education. Ideas developed and tested by charter schools have unlocked potential in students of every background and are driving reform throughout many school districts. During National Charter … [read more]

For over two centuries, our Nation has adhered to the rule of law as the foundation for a safe, free, and just society. President Eisenhower, seeking to formally recognize this tradition, established Law Day in 1958 as “a day of national dedication to the principles of government under law.” Each … [read more]

On July 4, 1776, after the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress of the newly formed United States of America appointed a committee to design a national seal. Our Founders set out to create a visible symbol of our sovereign country to inspire all our citizens and … [read more]

Nearly a half-million children and youth are in foster care in America, all entering the system through no fault of their own. During National Foster Care Month, we recognize the promise of children and youth in foster care, as well as former foster youth. We also celebrate the professionals and … [read more]

Older Americans have lived through momentous and trying times in our history, and they have strengthened our national character. Their experience and wisdom connect us to the past and help us meet the challenges of the present. During Older Americans Month, we show our support and appreciation for these treasured … [read more]

This year marks the 40th anniversary of both the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, which promise American workers the right to a safe workplace and require employers to provide safe conditions. Yet, today, we remain too far from fulfilling that promise. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the certification and reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 201 (b) of the United … [read more]

My Administration is committed to implementing a bold, new approach to human spaceflight. Supported by a $6 billion increase to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) budget over the next 5 years, this strategy will foster the development of path-breaking technologies, increase the reach and reduce the cost of … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Dorothy Height, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that, on the day of her interment, the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff … [read more]

In the fall of 1969, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson announced plans for a national “environmental teach-in”—one day, each year, of action and advocacy for the environment. His words rallied our Nation, and the first Earth Day, as it became known, saw millions come together to meet one of the greatest … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy … [read more]

The Federal Government is the world's largest purchaser of goods and services, with purchases totaling over $500 billion per year. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) and other national investments are providing new opportunities for small businesses to compete for Federal contracts, and it is critical … [read more]

Throughout our Nation’s history, extraordinary women have broken barriers to achieve their dreams and blazed trails so their daughters would not face similar obstacles. Despite decades of progress, pay inequity still hinders women and their families across our country. National Equal Pay Day symbolizes the day when an average American … [read more]

Since the founding of our Nation, we have met our greatest challenges through the dedication of countless Americans who have given generously of themselves, asking for nothing in return. The American story is a story of volunteers—of patriots who fought for our founding ideals, of people who marched for justice, … [read more]

As a Nation, we have a responsibility to protect America’s natural resources and noteworthy landmarks. During National Park Week, we celebrate the diversity, beauty, and history found in our National Park System. For nearly 100 years, the American people have entrusted the National Park Service (NPS) to care for the … [read more]

Millions of Americans fall prey to criminal behavior every year, and still more suffer the physical, emotional, and psychological pain of past offenses. This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten our families and our communities. Our Nation’s prosperity depends on the safety … [read more]

There is no greater evil than willful violence against innocents. On this National Day of Service and Remembrance for Victims and Survivors of Terrorism, we pause to remember victims of terrorism at home and abroad, we honor the heroes who have supported them, and we redouble our efforts to build … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate toyou the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 1265 of theNational Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, … [read more]

Americans are blessed with a vast and varied natural heritage. From mountains to deserts and from sea to shining sea, America's great outdoors have shaped the rugged independence and sense of community that define the American spirit. Our working landscapes, cultural sites, parks, coasts, wild lands, rivers, and streams are … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Public Law 111-117) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that it is important … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 7034(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Public Law 111-117), I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of those who perished in the mine explosion in Montcoal, West Virginia, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that the flag of the United States shall be … [read more]

There are few moments in our lives that call for greater compassion and companionship than when a loved one is admitted to the hospital. In these hours of need and moments of pain and anxiety, all of us would hope to have a hand to hold, a shoulder on which … [read more]

More than 200 years of history and significant current events have reinforced the strong bonds of friendship and common purpose among the nations and people of the Americas. The year 2010 marks the 80th anniversary of the first Pan American Day Proclamation; the centennial anniversary of the dedication of the … [read more]

Our Nation’s former prisoners of war faced tremendous challenges and dangers to protect us all. Many gave their last full measure of devotion to defend our freedom, and we are forever in their debt. Each year, on National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, the American people pay tribute to … [read more]

Every day, young Americans face pressures to engage in violent activities, drug use, and other harmful behavior. Today, we reaffirm our commitment to empowering our children to resist violence and substance abuse. Drug dependence affects individuals from all backgrounds, and its debilitating effects often go unaddressed. Too many of our … [read more]

In recent years, our Nation’s financial system has grown increasingly complex. This has left too many Americans behind, unable to build a secure financial future for themselves and their families. For many, financial literacy can mean economic prosperity and protection against fraud and predatory banking practices. During National Financial Literacy … [read more]

Our children are our most valuable resource, and they need our support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our unwavering commitment to protecting children and responding to child abuse, promoting healthy families, and building a brighter future for all Americans. … [read more]

Since our Nation’s earliest days, the census has played an important role in identifying where resources are most needed. This procedure, enshrined in our Constitution, informs our Government’s responses to the evolving needs of American communities. By completing this year’s survey, we can ensure they receive adequate funding for schools, … [read more]

Cancer is among the leading causes of death in our country, taking over half a million American lives in the past year alone. This illness has stricken countless individuals and families in communities across our Nation, but the future holds untold promise. We continue to make monumental strides in managing … [read more]

As Americans, we can demonstrate our commitment to one another in the most difficult of circumstances through organ, tissue, stem cell, and blood donation. During National Donate Life Month, we honor donors who provide others with a second chance for a healthy life and encourage more Americans to share this … [read more]

Every day, women, men, and children across America suffer the pain and trauma of sexual assault. From verbal harassment and intimidation to molestation and rape, this crime occurs far too frequently, goes unreported far too often, and leaves long-lasting physical and emotional scars. During National Sexual Assault Awareness Month, we … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 301 of the Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act … [read more]

My Administration is committed to transparency in tracking recovery dollars and to elimination of waste, fraud, and abuse by recipients of hard-earned taxpayer dollars. Executive departments and agencies (agencies) should use every means available to: (1) identify every prime recipient under an obligation to file a report on FederalReporting.gov arising … [read more]

The rights and benefits working Americans enjoy today were not easily gained; they had to be won. It took generations of courageous men and women, fighting to secure decent working conditions, organizing to demand fair pay, and sometimes risking their lives. Some, like Cesar Estrada Chavez, made it the cause … [read more]

To secure a bright future for America, we must instill in our children a love of learning as well as a spirit of compassion. These are two of our Nation’s most cherished and enduring values. Today, let us rededicate ourselves to preparing our next generation of leaders for the world … [read more]

Today, as we commemorate the 189th anniversary of Greece’s independence, we reaffirm the ties that link our nations together as allies and warm friends. We also honor the accomplishments of Greek Americans and their immeasurable contributions to the United States. It was the genius of America’s forebears to enshrine the … [read more]

Since 1962, during National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and provide information on safety measures that can prevent senseless injuries and deaths. With nearly two million poison exposures reported each year, we must take every precaution to guard against these preventable tragedies. … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Every day, American consumers decide how and where to spend their money. Their decisions have far-reaching effects for both their financial well-being and our Nation’s economic stability. National Consumer Protection Week (NCPW) gives all Americans an opportunity to become better-informed consumers. This year, NCPW focuses on the importance of being … [read more]

While many Americans are fortunate to have healthy eyes, millions are affected by low vision or blindness. Maintaining good vision requires early diagnosis and timely treatment of eye conditions. Save Your Vision Week is a time for all Americans to take action to protect their sight. Vision loss affects everyone, … [read more]

My Administration is committed to reducing payment errors and eliminating waste, fraud, and abuse in Federal programs—a commitment reflected in Executive Order 13520 of November 20, 2009, Reducing Improper Payments. Executive departments and agencies should use every tool available to identify and subsequently reclaim the funds associated with improper payments. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval … [read more]

Countless women have steered the course of our history, and their stories are ones of steadfast determination. From reaching for the ballot box to breaking barriers on athletic fields and battlefields, American women have stood resolute in the face of adversity and overcome obstacles to realize their full measure … [read more]

From long before American independence to today, countless individuals have reached our shores, bringing vibrant cultures and diverse roots, and immeasurably enriching our Nation. This month, we honor the contributions made by the tens of millions of Americans who trace their heritage to the Emerald Isle. Irish Americans fought for … [read more]

As the foundation that makes all other learning possible, literacy is the key to unlocking every child’s full potential. From riding a bus to opening a bank account, our everyday tasks and decisions require comprehension of the written word. On Read Across America Day, we reaffirm our commitment to investing … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). He took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

From rebuilding former adversaries after World War II, to combating HIV/AIDS in Africa, to saving lives after the tragic earthquake in Haiti, the American people have an unmatched tradition of responding to challenges at home and abroad with compassion and generosity. This tradition reflects our Nation’s noblest ideals and … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by … [read more]

Pursuant to section 104 of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act (Public Law 110-369), I hereby determine and certify that: 1. The Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities, as approved by … [read more]

Across our country, childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates and, as a result, our children may live shorter lives than their parents. Obesity has been recognized as a problem for decades, but efforts to address this crisis to date have been insufficient. My Administration is committed to redoubling our efforts … [read more]

In the centuries since African Americans first arrived on our shores, they have known the bitterness of slavery and oppression, the hope of progress, and the triumph of the American Dream. African American history is an essential thread of the American narrative that traces our Nation’s enduring struggle to perfect … [read more]

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Its victims are women and men, and people of all backgrounds and ethnicities, in all regions of our country. Although heart disease is one of our Nation’s most costly and widespread health problems, it is among the most … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the situation in or … [read more]

For decades, the coal industry has supported quality high-paying jobs for American workers, and coal has provided an important domestic source of reliable, affordable energy. At the same time, coal-fired power plants are the largest contributor to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and coal accounts for 40 percent of global emissions. … [read more]

Expanding our Nation's capacity to generate clean nuclear energy is crucial to our ability to combat climate change, enhance energy security, and increase economic prosperity. My Administration is undertaking substantial steps to expand the safe, secure, and responsible use of nuclear energy. These efforts are critical to accomplishing many of … [read more]

One hundred years ago, the Angel Island Immigration Station in San Francisco Bay opened for the first time, and an important chapter of the American narrative began. It would be written by those who walked through the station’s doors over the next three decades. From the cities, villages, and farms … [read more]

The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., challenged our Nation to recognize that our individual liberty relies upon our common equality. In communities marred by division and injustice, the movement he built from the ground up forced open doors to negotiation. The strength of his leadership was matched only by … [read more]

Long before our Nation’s independence, weary settlers sought refuge on our shores to escape religious persecution on other continents. Recognizing their strife and toil, it was the genius of America’s forefathers to protect our freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice none at all. Many faiths are now practiced … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

The Federal Government pays more than half a trillion dollars a year to contractors and has an important obligation to protect American taxpayer money and the integrity of the Federal acquisition process. Yet reports by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) state that Federal contracts are awarded to tens of thousands … [read more]

Since the first United States cases were identified in April of last year, our Nation has witnessed the worldwide spread of the H1N1 influenza virus. To date, tens of millions of Americans have contracted this virus. While the vast majority of those affected have recovered without incident, an unusually high … [read more]

Every day, mentors in communities across our Nation provide crucial support and guidance to young people. Whether a day is spent helping with homework, playing catch, or just listening, these moments can have an enormous, lasting effect on a child’s life. During National Mentoring Month, we recognize those who give … [read more]

The United States was founded on the principle that all people are born with an unalienable right to freedom—an ideal that has driven the engine of American progress throughout our history. As a Nation, we have known moments of great darkness and greater light; and dim years of chattel slavery … [read more]

Forty years ago, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was signed into law with overwhelming bipartisan support, ushering in a new era of environmental awareness and citizen participation in government. NEPA elevated the role of environmental considerations in proposed Federal agency actions, and it remains the cornerstone of our Nation’s … [read more]

Pursuant to the provisions of section 1.3 of the Executive Order issued today, entitled “Classified National Security Information” (Executive Order), I hereby designate the following officials to classify information originally as “Top Secret” or “Secret”: TOP SECRET Executive Office of the President: The Assistant to the President and Chief of … [read more]

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