A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
228 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2012

1. The Russian Federation has been found to be in full compliance with the freedom of emigration requirements under title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2431 et seq .) since 1994. The Russian Federation acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on August … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, after carefully considering the report submitted to the Congress by the Energy Information Administration on October 25, 2012, and other relevant factors, including global economic conditions, increased oil production by certain countries, … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory and longstanding service of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President pro tempore of the Senate, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and consistent with President Nixon's Proclamation 3948, … [read more]

On December 22, 2010, I issued a memorandum stating that the heads of executive departments and agencies should suspend any increases to any pay systems or pay schedules covering executive branch employees, and should forgo any general increases in covered employees' rates of pay, that could otherwise take effect as … [read more]

After years of research and experimentation, 12 seconds of powered flight over the hills of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, vindicated the passion and resolve with which Wilbur and Orville Wright pursued their lifelong dream. Like so many Americans before and after them, these two men achieved the unthinkable, and their … [read more]

When President Franklin D. Roosevelt recognized the 150th anniversary of our Nation's Bill of Rights, he called it the “great American charter of personal liberty and human dignity.” He understood that the freedoms it protects—among them speech, worship, assembly, and due process—are freedoms that reinforce one another. They form the … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on December 14, 2012, in Newtown, Connecticut, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby order that … [read more]

Sixty-four years ago, a group of nations emerging from the shadow of war joined together to light a path toward lasting peace. They adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights—a revolutionary document that recognized the inherent dignity and inalienable rights of all people as the “foundation of freedom, justice, and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

On December 7, 1941, our Nation suffered one of the most devastating attacks ever to befall the American people. In less than 2 hours, the bombs that rained on Pearl Harbor robbed thousands of men, women, and children of their lives; in little more than a day, our country was … [read more]

Americans have always understood that each of us is entitled to a set of fundamental freedoms and protections under the law, and that when everyone gets a fair shot at opportunity, all of us do better. For more than two decades, our country has upheld those basic promises for persons … [read more]

At the core of who we are as a Nation is a fundamental belief: that no matter who you are, no matter what you look like, no matter where you come from, if you have an idea and a willingness to work hard, you can succeed. It is this belief … [read more]

On World AIDS Day, more than 30 years after the first cases of this tragic illness were reported, we join the global community once more in standing with the millions of people who live with HIV/AIDS worldwide. We also recommit to preventing the spread of this disease, fighting the stigma … [read more]

As Americans gather with friends and family to share in the holiday season, National Impaired Driving Prevention Month reminds us of the importance of celebrating safely. Every year, accidents involving drunk, drugged, or distracted driving claim thousands of lives, leaving families to face the heartbreak of losing a loved one. … [read more]

Every day, Americans across our country—from entrepreneurs and college students to families and community leaders—rely on critical infrastructure to travel and communicate, work and play. The assets and systems we depend on are essential to our way of life, and during Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Month, we maintain our … [read more]

On Thanksgiving Day, Americans everywhere gather with family and friends to recount the joys and blessings of the past year. This day is a time to take stock of the fortune we have known and the kindnesses we have shared, grateful for the God-given bounty that enriches our lives. As … [read more]

Consistent with the authority provided to me under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5), as amended by section 1306 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Public Law 111-203) (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), I have determined that it is not in the best … [read more]

All children deserve the chance to follow their passions, chase their dreams, and pursue their fullest measure of happiness. On National Child's Day, we celebrate the innumerable ways our sons and daughters have enriched our lives, and we rededicate ourselves to helping them achieve excellence in everything they do. America's … [read more]

The bonds that tie us to our loved ones have always played an important role in the American story. Families of every makeup continue to guide our country's progress by supporting one another with unshakable devotion and instilling strength of character in their children. This week, we celebrate the unity … [read more]

For 15 years, our country has celebrated America Recycles Day as a time to focus on conserving valuable materials, keeping our communities clean, and protecting our environment. Today, we reflect on the progress we have made toward fulfilling those important goals and rededicate ourselves to building a more sustainable future. … [read more]

There are times in the course of history when the actions of ordinary citizens spark movements for change because they speak to a longing for freedom that has been building up for years. So it was in Berlin on November 9, 1989, when the German people began tearing down a … [read more]

All children deserve access to a world-class education and the chance to pursue their dreams. Our schools are a gateway to those opportunities and the key to our Nation's economic prosperity and civic life. This week, we reaffirm our national mission of educating our students and training our workers better … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of … [read more]

Whether they fought in Salerno or Samarra, Heartbreak Ridge or Helmand, Khe Sanh or the Korengal, our veterans are part of an unbroken chain of men and women who have served our country with honor and distinction. On Veterans Day, we show them our deepest thanks. Their sacrifices have helped … [read more]

As a Nation that believes all children deserve the chance to reach their full potential, we have a fundamental responsibility to ensure each of them grows up knowing the love and protection of a permanent family. During National Adoption Month, we give voice to children who are still waiting for … [read more]

Every day, families across our country confront the tragic realities of Alzheimer's disease—an irreversible, fatal illness that robs men and women of their cherished memories and leads to progressive mental and physical impairments. Millions of individuals suffer from this debilitating ailment, and millions more shoulder profound emotional and financial burdens … [read more]

Diabetes is a chronic, life-threatening illness that touches Americans of every age, ethnicity, and background. Its complications can be far-reaching: diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and new cases of blindness, and people living with the disease are at higher risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, and … [read more]

Our Nation's health care professionals provide essential medical services to millions of Americans, yet they do not shoulder their responsibilities alone. Family members, friends, and neighbors devote countless hours to providing care to their relatives or loved ones. During National Family Caregivers Month, we recognize and thank the humble heroes … [read more]

Since our Nation's earliest days, courageous men and women of all backgrounds and beliefs have banded together to fight for the freedoms we cherish. Behind each of them stands a parent, a sibling, a child, a spouse—proud family members who share the weight of deployment and make profound sacrifices on … [read more]

As the first people to live on the land we all cherish, American Indians and Alaska Natives have profoundly shaped our country's character and our cultural heritage. Today, Native Americans are leaders in every aspect of our society—from the classroom, to the boardroom, to the battlefield. This month, we celebrate … [read more]

America is known around the world as a country that empowers the inventor and the innovator. Ours is a Nation where men and women can take a chance on a dream—where they can take an idea that starts around a kitchen table or in a garage and turn it into … [read more]

1. On June 28, 2007, the United States entered into the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement (the “Agreement”). The Congress approved the Agreement in section 101(a) of the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (the “Implementation Act”) (Public Law 112-43, 125 Stat. 497). 2. Section 105(a) of the Implementation … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

Sixty-seven years ago, as the world began to emerge from the shadows of war, the 51 founding member states of the United Nations came together to take up the new test of forging a lasting peace. In a decade scarred by genocide, the United Nations chose the hope of unity … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain … [read more]

With every step in our journey toward a more perfect Union, Americans have drawn strength from the values that bind us together as one people. Personal integrity, mutual respect, commitment to service—these timeless ideals have guided our Nation's progress for centuries, inspiring us not only to see the best in … [read more]

Since our Nation's founding, America's forests have played an essential role in powering our progress. These rich spaces have provided clean air and water for our communities, building materials for our homes, reliable growth for our economy, and vibrant environments for us to explore. During National Forest Products Week, we … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Arlen Specter, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that on the day of his interment, the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff at … [read more]

As business leaders and public advocates, teachers and scientists, musicians and athletes, and in countless other ways, blind and visually impaired Americans have profoundly enriched every part of our national life. Today, we celebrate their innumerable contributions, and we recommit to guaranteeing equal access, equal opportunity, and equal respect for … [read more]

Our children are the key to America's success in the 21st century, and it is incumbent upon us all to ensure they have the resources they need to reach their greatest potential—including access to healthy meals at school. During National School Lunch Week, we recognize all those whose dedicated work … [read more]

On October 11, 1962, President John F. Kennedy signed the Trade Expansion Act—a landmark piece of legislation that established a Special Representative for Trade Negotiations who would be tasked with promoting and securing trade agreements with partner countries around the world. Fifty years after that historic event, the Office of … [read more]

Two hundred and thirty-three years ago, a Polish-born patriot gave his life to advance the cause of American independence. As a leader in the Continental Army who fought shoulder-to-shoulder with men from Europe and America alike, Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski battled to extend the principles that were as dear to … [read more]

Leif Erikson—son of Iceland and grandson of Norway—crossed the North Atlantic more than 1,000 years ago to land on the shores of present-day Canada. His arrival marked the first known European encounter with North America and began a legacy of daring exploration that would help define the character of our … [read more]

Every year, fires in and around homes nationwide put thousands of Americans in harm's way. From the loss of a home to the tragic passing of a loved one, the devastation these disasters leave in their wake is heartbreaking. During Fire Prevention Week, we resolve to protect ourselves, our families, … [read more]

As dawn broke over the Atlantic on October 12, 1492, a perilous 10-week journey across an ocean gave way to encounters and events that would dramatically shape the course of history. Today, we recall the courage and the innovative spirit that carried Christopher Columbus and his crew from a Spanish … [read more]

United by dreams of freedom, opportunity, and better lives for their families, generations of immigrants have crossed land and sea to pursue the American promise. With unfailing hope for the future they knew was possible here, German Americans have shared in that promise and contributed immeasurably to our Nation. During … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during Fiscal Year … [read more]

Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV, Public Law 110-457), I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States to waive the application of the prohibition in section 404(a) of the CSPA with respect to Libya, South … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions of the President under section 1 of H.R. 6431, 112th Congress (2012), an act … [read more]

After the bombing of Fort McHenry during the War of 1812, a young lawyer named Francis Scott Key reached for his pen and captured the resilience of the American people. His poem became our National Anthem, and almost two centuries later, it continues to speak to the American spirit just … [read more]

Today, Americans are more connected to each other and to people around the world than ever before. Many of us depend on the Internet and digital tools in our daily lives—from shopping at home and banking on our mobile devices to sharing information with friends across the globe. And America … [read more]

Every day, far too many Americans are hurt by alcohol and drug abuse. From diminished achievement in our schools, to greater risks on our roads and in our communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are profound. Yet, we also know that they … [read more]

Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans from every background and in every community across our Nation. Though we have made great strides in combatting this devastating illness, more than 200,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year, and tens of thousands are expected to lose their lives … [read more]

As a Nation, we share an obligation to ensure the health and well-being of our children. The youth of today will shape America's tomorrow, and on Child Health Day, we rededicate ourselves to providing our next generation with access to the quality health care and clean environment that will nurture … [read more]

A secure energy future is vital to an economy built to last. When we use American energy to power our homes, businesses, and vehicles, we create new American jobs, grow new American industries, and safeguard our national security and our economic potential. As demand for energy increases worldwide, our Nation … [read more]

In the 22 years since the signing of the Americans with Disabilities Act, we have made significant progress in giving all Americans the freedom to make of our lives what we will. Yet, in times of prosperity as well as challenge, people with disabilities have had fewer opportunities in our … [read more]

For far too long, domestic violence was ignored or treated as a private matter where victims were left to suffer in silence without hope of intervention. As we mark the 18th anniversary of the landmark Violence Against Women Act, authored by Vice President Joe Biden, we reflect on how far … [read more]

From the revolution that gave life to our Republic to the trials of our times, our men and women in uniform have put themselves in harm's way to defend the people they love and the land they cherish. Their actions attest not only to the depth of their sacrifice, but … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 721 of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (section 721), 50 U.S.C. App. 2170, Section 1. Findings. I hereby make the following findings: (a) There is … [read more]

When Thomas Jefferson described the view from Monticello in 1786, he wrote, “How sublime to look down into the workhouse of nature, to see her clouds, hail, snow, rain, thunder, all fabricated at our feet!” Though much has changed in the years since our third President put those words to … [read more]

In Presidential document 2012-22710 beginning on page 56519 in the issue of Wednesday, September 12, 2012, make the following correction: On page 56519, the heading should read “Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism”. … [read more]

From our highest peaks and most historic parks to the quiet woods and streams where generations of families have connected with the land around them, America's great outdoors have always played an important role in our national life. On National Hunting and Fishing Day, we celebrate our rich legacy of … [read more]

The founders of our Nation's first colleges and universities for African Americans shared a fundamental belief that, with the right education, all people can overcome barriers of injustice to achieve their fullest potential. These pioneers understood that education means emancipation—a path to freedom, independence, and success. More than 150 years … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including 49 U.S.C. 44301-44310, I hereby: 1. Determine that the continuation of U.S. air transportation is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the United … [read more]

For more than two centuries, Americans have bravely served our Nation as members of our Armed Forces. Many have made profound sacrifices to uphold the ideals we cherish, carrying wounds that may never fully heal and dark memories that will never fade. Today, we pay solemn tribute to service members … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit and/or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Sudan, and Zimbabwe, not to … [read more]

During the 236 years since our fundamental rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness were first put to paper, ordinary citizens have always stood ready to defend them as members of the United States Armed Forces. Today's service members represent the latest in the long line of heroes … [read more]

From producing America's food, fuel, and fiber to advancing clean, homegrown energy solutions, farmers and ranchers play an essential role in driving our country's progress. They keep our economy moving forward, and as important stewards of our environment, they help conserve our lands, protect our wildlife, and safeguard our waters … [read more]

Our Nation's story would not be possible without generations of Hispanics who have shaped and strengthened the fabric of our Union. They have enriched every aspect of our national identity with traditions that stretch across centuries and reflect the many ancestries that comprise the Hispanic community. This month, we celebrate … [read more]

Equipping our children with the knowledge and skills for a lifetime of success is among our Nation's most important responsibilities. We know that providing the next generation with a world-class education is not just a moral obligation—it is a prerequisite for America's progress in the 21st century. With Hispanics representing … [read more]

Today, we celebrate our heritage as a country bound together by fidelity to a set of ideas and a system of governance first laid out in America's Constitution. The product of fierce debate and enduring compromise, our Nation's Constitution has guided our progress from 13 to 50 United States that … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of John Christopher Stevens, United States Ambassador to Libya, and American personnel killed in the senseless attack on our diplomatic facility in Benghazi, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of … [read more]

Throughout our history, grandparents have guided their children and grandchildren through trial and triumph. For many of us, our grandparents were among our earliest teachers and caregivers. They have added immeasurably to the strength of our families, and with compassion and wisdom, they have enriched our lives with the stories … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 13, 2011 (76 FR 57623, September 15, 2011), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2012. I … [read more]

Eleven years ago, America confronted one of our darkest days. The events of September 11, 2001, brought collapsing towers in Manhattan and billowing smoke at the Pentagon, wreckage on a Pennsylvania field, and deep ache to the soul of our Nation. Nearly 3,000 innocent people lost their lives that morning; … [read more]

On September 11, 2001, a bright autumn day was darkened by the worst attack on the American people in our history. Thousands of innocent men, women, and children perished when mighty towers collapsed in the heart of New York City and wreckage burned in Pennsylvania and at the Pentagon. They … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the President declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency previously declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on … [read more]

As thousands of our fellow Americans respond to and recover from the damage done by Hurricane Isaac, we are called to remember that throughout our history, emergencies and natural disasters have tested the fabric of our country. During National Preparedness Month, we renew our commitment to promoting emergency preparedness in … [read more]

Every day, millions of Americans with substance use disorders commit to managing their health by maintaining their recovery from drug or alcohol addiction. People in recovery are not strangers: they are our family members, friends, colleagues, and neighbors. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we recognize their strength … [read more]

Every year, thousands of children across America are diagnosed with cancer—an often life-threatening illness that remains the leading cause of death by disease for children under the age of 15. The causes of pediatric cancer are still largely unknown, and though new discoveries are resulting in new treatments, this heartbreaking … [read more]

Prostate cancer is among the most common cancers for men living in the United States, and despite the progress we have made in controlling it, the disease continues to take a devastating toll on thousands of lives every year. During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those we have … [read more]

Through times of prosperity and hardship alike, America counts on the strength and dynamism of the world's finest labor force. From the factory floor and the office to the classroom and the interstate, working men and women are the unshakable foundation of American innovation and economic growth. On Labor Day, … [read more]

Over the past several decades, childhood obesity has become a serious public health issue that puts millions of our sons and daughters at risk. The stakes are high: if we do not solve this problem, many among America's next generation will face diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems … [read more]

This year, thousands of American women will lose their lives to ovarian cancer. They are mothers and daughters, sisters and grandmothers, community members and cherished friends—and the absence they leave in our hearts will be deeply felt forever. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we honor those we have lost, … [read more]

For centuries, America's dramatic landscapes have attracted people from around the world to begin new lives and develop thriving communities on our lands. Today, our wilderness areas reflect an essential part of our national character, and as a people, we are immeasurably richer for their presence. Protected wilderness areas are … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Neil Armstrong, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, that on the day of his interment, the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff … [read more]

On Women's Equality Day, we mark the anniversary of our Constitution's 19th Amendment, which secured the right to vote for America's women. The product of profound struggle and fierce hope, the 19th Amendment reaffirmed what we have always known: that America is a place where anything is possible and where … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 5(a)(2) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts Act of 2008 (Public Law … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. ). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond … [read more]

For nearly half a century, health centers have helped make primary care services available and affordable for millions of Americans. From coast to coast, they deliver critical support for patients by not only providing treatment for those in need, but also emphasizing preventive care that helps people lead healthier lives. … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on August 5, 2012, in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby order … [read more]

Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis—a disease that threatens the health of millions of Americans and people across the globe. As a leading cause of liver cancer in the United States, it remains a major public health challenge here at home. Because the disease can persist … [read more]

Sixty-two years ago, the Communist invasion of the Republic of Korea summoned a generation of Americans to serve. From the landings at Inchon to the Pusan Perimeter, from Heartbreak Ridge to Chosin Reservoir, our forces fought with immeasurable courage in one of the defining moments of the Cold War. Today, … [read more]

In Presidential document 2012-17703 beginning on page 42415 in the issue of Wednesday, July 18, 2012, make the following correction: On page 42415, the date following “Notice of” should read “July 17, 2012”. Also, in the third paragraph of the main text, the words “Federal Register ” should appear in … [read more]

Since our earliest days, America has measured its progress not only by the growth of our borders and the breadth of our economy, but also by how far we reach toward fully realizing the fundamental rights, protections, and freedoms afforded to each of us by our Nation's founding documents. For … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes or institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on July 20, 2012, in Aurora, Colorado, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby order that … [read more]

When President Dwight D. Eisenhower first proclaimed Captive Nations Week amidst an escalating Cold War, he affirmed that “the citizens of the United States are linked by bonds of family and principle to those who love freedom and justice on every continent.” Our world has changed dramatically since 1959, but … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

On July 24, 2011, by Executive Order 13581, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the activities of significant … [read more]

The Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994 (USERRA) protects individuals performing, or who performed, uniformed service in accordance with 38 U.S.C. 4301-4335 from adverse employment discrimination on the basis of their uniformed service, and provides for their prompt restoration to civilian employment when they return to civilian … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of the property of certain persons connected to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the function and authority specified in section 570(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(b)(2)(D) of the Export Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended, I determine that it is in the national interest of the United States for the Export Import Bank of the United States to extend a loan in the amount of approximately $125,870,890 to the Vietnam Post … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the existence and risk … [read more]

Every day, ordinary Americans make extraordinary contributions to the well-being of our children and the strength of our Nation by answering one of life's greatest callings—parenthood. Morning, noon, and night, they dedicate themselves to their sons and daughters, expressing a love that knows neither beginning nor end through small daily … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

Every American deserves the chance to live out the full measure of their days in health and security. Yet, every year, millions of older Americans are denied that most basic opportunity due to abuse, neglect, or exploitation. On World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, we call attention to this global public … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, after carefully considering the report submitted to the Congress by the Energy Information Administration on April 27, 2012, and other relevant factors, including global economic conditions, increased oil production by certain countries, … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, the President declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with … [read more]

Ninety-six years ago, our Nation first came together to celebrate Flag Day—an occasion when President Woodrow Wilson asked us to “stand with united hearts for an America which no man can corrupt, no influence draw away from its ideals, no force divide against itself.” This week, we mark nearly one … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section 405(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 7040(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Division I, Public Law 112-74) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that it is important … [read more]

From generation to generation, ordinary Americans have led a proud and inexorable march toward freedom, fairness, and full equality under the law—not just for some, but for all. Ours is a heritage forged by those who organized, agitated, and advocated for change; who wielded love stronger than hate and hope … [read more]

Individuals and families from Caribbean countries have journeyed to America's shores for centuries. Some were brought here against their will in the bonds of slavery. Some immigrated to America as children, clutching a parent's hand. Others came as adults, leaving behind everything they knew in pursuit of a better life … [read more]

Our oceans help feed our Nation, fuel our economic engine, give mobility to our Armed Forces, and provide a place for rest and recreation. Healthy oceans, coasts, and waterways are among our most valuable resources—driving growth, creating jobs, and supporting businesses across America. During National Oceans Month, we reaffirm our … [read more]

As a long-cherished piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union. At times when words alone could not bring us together, we have found in melodies and choruses the universal truths of our shared humanity. African-American musicians have left an … [read more]

America's natural treasures and unique landscapes have always mirrored the rugged independence and cherished diversity that define our national character. From rocky coasts to lush woodlands to urban parks, our great outdoors have set the scene for countless adventures, trials, and triumphs. During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our long … [read more]

More individuals than ever before are using student loans to finance college. Nearly two-thirds of college graduates borrow to pay for college, with an average debt upon graduation of about $26,300. While a college education remains an excellent investment, this debt can be overly burdensome, especially for recent graduates during … [read more]

Every year, hurricanes put communities at risk of catastrophic damage from storm surges, flooding, high winds, and tornadoes. During National Hurricane Preparedness Week, we rededicate ourselves to preventing loss of life and damage to property by raising awareness about hurricane hazards and taking action to protect our families, our homes, … [read more]

As we observe the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War, we reflect with solemn reverence upon the valor of a generation that served with honor. We pay tribute to the more than 3 million servicemen and women who left their families to serve bravely, a world away from everything they … [read more]

Our Nation endures and thrives because of the devotion of our men and women in uniform, who, from generation to generation, carry a burden heavier than any we may ever know. On Memorial Day, we honor those who have borne conflict’s greatest cost, mourn where the wounds of war are … [read more]

For 237 years, the men and women of the United States Merchant Marine have risen to meet our country’s call. They have strengthened our economy and our security in times of calm and conflict, connecting our service members to the supplies they need and transporting our exports into the global … [read more]

For centuries, America’s progress has been driven by pioneers who think big, take risks, and work hard. Where their ideas take root, we find inventions that can change the way we live. And when their businesses take off, they fuel an engine of economic growth and job creation that moves … [read more]

Day and night, in communities across our country, men and women providing emergency medical services (EMS) stand at the front lines of our public safety and public health systems, ready to respond with care and efficiency at a moment’s notice. During Emergency Medical Services Week, we honor their essential contributions … [read more]

For generations, Americans have enjoyed our scenic lakes, rivers, and oceans as places for rest and recreation, sharing with friends and family a well-loved tradition. During National Safe Boating Week, we renew our commitment to safe, responsible practices on our Nation’s waterways. By planning ahead and taking basic safety precautions, … [read more]

America has always been a Nation of doers, makers, growers, and builders. Empowered by innovative universities, pioneering entrepreneurs, and productive workers, we have met a global demand for goods and services designed and produced by Americans. During World Trade Week, we reaffirm the essential role exports play in creating jobs … [read more]

With every assignment and in every theater, America’s men and women in uniform perform their duties with the utmost dignity, honor, and professionalism. Through their dauntless courage and dedication, they live up to our Nation’s highest ideals in even the most perilous circumstances. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute … [read more]

The innovative use of technology is fundamentally transforming how the American people do business and live their daily lives. Exponential increases in computing power, the rise of high-speed networks, and the growing mobile revolution have put the Internet at our fingertips, encouraging innovations that are giving rise to new industries … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President took this action to deal with the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq . (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq . (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 3345 et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession . Subject to … [read more]

Every day, public safety officers work tirelessly to protect our citizens, enforce our laws, and keep our neighborhoods safe. They report for duty knowing full well the dangers they face and the sacrifices they may be called upon to make. This week, we pay tribute to the thousands of men … [read more]

1. On November 22, 2006, the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the “Agreement”) and on June 28, 2007, the United States and Colombia amended the Agreement. The Congress approved the Agreement, as amended, in section 101(a) of the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act … [read more]

Women have guided our country toward prosperity and progress, and our Nation’s success depends on their well-being. While women often play a leading role in making medical decisions for their families, their own health care needs have too often gone unmet. During National Women’s Health Week, we recommit to making … [read more]

On May 15, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed legislation to establish the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and codified a commitment to the health of our people and our land. One hundred and fifty years later, USDA continues to realize that vision of service by applying sound public policy … [read more]

From the railroads that connected our continent in the 19th century to the highways that drove progress during the 20th, American infrastructure has fueled our Nation’s growth for generations. Our roads, rails, runways, and shipyards have formed the foundation for a thriving global marketplace, and our transportation networks have enabled … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma had committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

Sexual violence, against any victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) was enacted with bipartisan support and established a “zero-tolerance standard” for rape in prisons in the United States. 42 U.S.C. 15602(1). My Administration, with leadership … [read more]

Mothers are cornerstones of our families and our communities. On Mother’s Day, we honor the remarkable women who strive and sacrifice every day to ensure their children have every opportunity to pursue their dreams. Our Nation first came together to celebrate Mother’s Day on May 11, 1913, with the introduction … [read more]

For more than two centuries, our freedom has been safeguarded by brave patriots who have stepped forward and sworn an oath to defend the principles upon which our Republic was founded. Alongside these selfless heroes, our Nation’s military spouses also offer tremendous service and make great sacrifices for our country. … [read more]

As a Nation, we share a responsibility to provide our children with a world-class education. By keeping our young people engaged in learning, we help them develop the skills and values that will not only guide them in life, but also prepare them to thrive in the global economy. For … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003, Public Law 108-175, the President issued Executive Order 13338, in which he declared a national emergency with respect to the actions … [read more]

Three hundred and fifty-eight years ago, a band of 23 Jewish refugees fled Recife, Brazil, beset by bigotry and oppression. For them, receding shores marked the end of another chapter of persecution for a people that had been tested from the moment they came together and professed their faith. Yet, … [read more]

Childhood is a time for our young people to grow and learn, protected by their families and safe in their homes. But for almost half a million children who are unable to remain at home through no fault of their own, childhood can be a time of sadness, pain, and … [read more]

More than two centuries ago, our Founders laid out a charter that assured the rule of law and the rights of man. Through times of tranquility and the throes of change, the Constitution has always guided our course toward fulfilling that most noble promise that all are equal, all are … [read more]

In neighborhoods and workplaces across America, professionals throughout government and industry work to implement building safety solutions that strengthen resilience and meet community needs. By designing and implementing state-of-the-art building safety, energy efficiency, and fire prevention codes and standards, they help save lives and prevent disruption in the wake of … [read more]

Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have helped make America what it is today. Their histories recall bitter hardships and proud accomplishments—from the laborers who connected our coasts one-and-a-half centuries ago, to the patriots who fought overseas while their families were interned at home, from those who endured … [read more]

In July 1961, President John F. Kennedy remarked that “the strength of our democracy and our country is really no greater in the final analysis than the well-being of our citizens.” He envisioned a renewed national commitment to leading a more active and vigorous life—to pursuing health of mind and … [read more]

Prayer has always been a part of the American story, and today countless Americans rely on prayer for comfort, direction, and strength, praying not only for themselves, but for their communities, their country, and the world. On this National Day of Prayer, we give thanks for our democracy that respects … [read more]

America endured great trials and heralded defining triumphs over the course of the 20th century, and the men and women who saw us through that time remain among our Nation’s greatest assets. Through their guiding wisdom, enduring love of family, and inspiring commitment to country, older Americans continue to steer … [read more]

When President Dwight D. Eisenhower established Law Day in 1958, he proclaimed it “fitting that the people of this Nation should remember with pride and vigilantly guard the great heritage of liberty, justice, and equality under law which our forefathers bequeathed to us.” Today, we celebrate that enduring legacy and … [read more]

For centuries, American workers have called upon boundless drive and initiative to raise our cities, manufacture our goods, and build an economy that remains the engine and the envy of the world. Generations put their lives on the line to pursue prosperity, braving the hazards of the factory floor and … [read more]

For more than three decades, advocates from every corner of America have worked to reinforce rights, services, and support for victims of crime. Our Nation stands stronger for their efforts. Today, thousands of victim assistance programs empower survivors with the tools to rebuild their lives. Yet, when only about half … [read more]

On April 22, 1970, millions of Americans came together to celebrate the first Earth Day. Students, teachers, activists, elected officials, and countless others challenged our Nation to confront our most urgent environmental issues and rallied around a single message: the success of future generations depends upon how we act today. … [read more]

When President Theodore Roosevelt first took office over a century ago, he embarked on a tour of the American West that would change his life and the life of our Nation forever. He traveled from Yellowstone’s geysers, to Yosemite’s granite cliffs, to Dakota’s Badlands, ever moved by the natural wonders … [read more]

In the heart of California’s Central Coast, the former Fort Ord encompasses a sweeping landscape of vivid beauty and rich natural diversity. One of the few remaining expanses of large, contiguous open space in the increasingly developed Monterey Bay area, this area is a rolling landscape long treasured for recreation, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 8 of the Belarus Democracy … [read more]

Working women power America’s economy and sustain our middle class. For millions of families across our country, women’s wages mean food on the table, decent medical care, and timely mortgage payments. Yet, in 2010—47 years after President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963—women who worked full-time … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 1235(c) of the National Defense … [read more]

Despite the considerable progress made since the initial passage of the Violence Against Women Act in 1994 (Public Law 103-322), domestic violence remains a significant problem facing individuals, families, and communities. Domestic violence causes two million injuries each year, and an average of three women in the United States die … [read more]

In April of 1890, delegates from countries throughout the Americas gathered in Washington, D.C., united in the belief that cooperation would lead to a more peaceful, secure, and prosperous hemisphere. Demonstrating remarkable foresight and a commitment to progress, they came together to forge a community of nations that would one … [read more]

Our Nation has been profoundly shaped by ordinary Americans who have volunteered their time and energy to overcome extraordinary challenges. From the American Revolution and the Seneca Falls Convention to the everyday acts of compassion and purpose that move millions to make change in their communities, our Nation has always … [read more]

For more than 200 years, members of our Armed Forces have upheld an oath to protect and defend. In times of war, generations have answered our country’s call with courage and valor, braving the peril of combat and pressing onward in the face of tremendous adversity. Their extraordinary service reflects … [read more]

On April 12, 2010, by Executive Order 13536, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the fragile security situation and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, after carefully considering the report submitted to the Congress by the Energy Information Administration on February 29, 2012, and other relevant information, and given current global economic conditions, increased production by certain … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is … [read more]

For centuries, the pursuit of knowledge and the cultivation of character have driven American progress and enriched our national life. On Education and Sharing Day, U.S.A., we renew our commitment to these timeless aspirations, and we rededicate ourselves to fostering in our sons and daughters inquiring minds and compassionate hearts. … [read more]

With quiet compassion and exceptional generosity, organ and tissue donors leave an indelible mark on the lives of countless Americans. Their selfless acts inspire hope at moments of profound need, and they recall the giving spirit that lies at the heart of our national character. During National Donate Life Month, … [read more]

This year, an estimated half a million Americans will lose their lives to cancer, and three times that many will be diagnosed with this devastating illness. Cancer patients are parents and grandparents, children and cherished friends; the disease touches almost all of us and casts a shadow over families and … [read more]

Though we have come far in the fight to reduce sexual violence, the prevalence of sexual assault remains an affront to our national conscience that we cannot ignore. This month, we stand with survivors of sexual assault, join together to break the silence, and recommit to ending this devastating crime. … [read more]

As parents, as communities, and as a Nation, the work of raising our children stands among our greatest responsibilities and our most profound blessings. The support we give and the examples we set form cornerstones for their success, and by teaching our children to trust in themselves, we equip them … [read more]

Across our country, millions of Americans work hard and play by the rules to protect the gains they have made and secure a brighter future for their loved ones. The resilience and ingenuity of our people are driving our economic recovery, and as we lay the foundation for an America … [read more]

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect young people and adults of every background, and millions of American families know the weight of their impact. On World Autism Awareness Day, we recognize ASDs as a growing public health issue and recommit to supporting those living with an ASD and their loved ones. … [read more]

On January 12, 1962, United States Army pilots lifted more than 1,000 South Vietnamese service members over jungle and underbrush to capture a National Liberation Front stronghold near Saigon. Operation Chopper marked America’s first combat mission against the Viet Cong, and the beginning of one of our longest and most … [read more]

Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact on many communities. In the United States, there are approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS, including more than 290,000 women. Women and girls now account for 24 percent of all diagnoses of HIV infection among United States … [read more]

One of our Nation’s great civil rights leaders, Cesar Estrada Chavez came of age as a migrant farm worker, witnessing the injustice that pervaded fields and vineyards across California. Facing discrimination, poverty, and dangerous working conditions, laborers toiled for little pay and without access to even the most basic necessities. … [read more]

Two hundred and thirty-six years ago, a new American Nation was founded on an old Greek principle—democratic rule by a free people. We trace this enduring idea to ancient Hellas, where Greeks brought forth the world’s first democracy and kindled a philosophical tradition that would stand the test of time. … [read more]

[Federal Register of Tuesday, March 6, 2012, is being reprinted with a White House correction.] As Americans, ours is a legacy of bold independence and passionate belief in fairness and justice for all. For generations, this intrepid spirit has driven women pioneers to challenge injustices and shatter ceilings in pursuit … [read more]

Nine years ago, members of the United States Armed Forces crossed the sands of the Iraq-Kuwait border and began one of the most challenging missions our military has ever known. They left the comforts of home and family, volunteering in service to a cause greater than themselves. They braved insurgency … [read more]

In an economy that relies on oil, rising prices at the pump affect all of us. With crude oil prices controlling about three-quarters of gasoline prices, the most important driver of the price here at home is the world oil price—making our economy vulnerable to events halfway around the globe. … [read more]

Unintentional drug overdose, exposure to harmful chemicals, and other types of accidental poisoning claim thousands of lives every year. On the 50th anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all Americans to help protect their loved ones by identifying poisoning hazards at home; using, storing, and disposing of medication … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretaries of Defense and Energy the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

1. On June 30, 2007, the United States entered into the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”). The Congress approved the Agreement in section 101(a) of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “Implementation Act”) (Public Law 112-41, 125 Stat. 428). 2. Section 105(a) of the Implementation … [read more]

Millions of Americans use financial products, including credit cards, mortgages, and student loans, to build the foundation for a better tomorrow. These tools help bring our aspirations within reach and empower countless individuals to earn an education, afford a home, or raise a family. Yet, irresponsible lending and deceptive practices … [read more]

After more than 130 years of providing humanitarian relief at home and abroad, the American Red Cross remains a reflection of the compassion and generosity central to our national identity. At moments of profound need, the actions of men and women across our country reflect our noblest ideals of service—from … [read more]

From infancy through adulthood, reading enriches the human experience and illuminates the path to learning, opportunity, and success. By sharing the beauty and power of books with our children, we make a vital investment not only in their future, but also in an America that leads the world in educating … [read more]

For centuries, America and Ireland have built a proud and enduring partnership cemented by mutual values and a common history. Generations of Irish have crossed the Atlantic in pursuit of prosperity, and today nearly 40 million of their proud descendants continue to make their indelible mark on the United States … [read more]

As Americans, ours is a legacy of bold independence and passionate belief in fairness and justice for all. For generations, this intrepid spirit has driven women pioneers to challenge injustices and shatter ceilings in pursuit of full and enduring equality. During Women’s History Month, we commemorate their struggles, celebrate centuries … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you, in consultation with the heads of other executive departments and agencies, as appropriate: (1) … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). He took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the authority conferred upon the President by section 1022(a)(4) of the National Defense Authorization Act for … [read more]

Today, compelled by court order, the Department of the Interior (Department) proposed critical habitat for the northern spotted owl. The proposal is an initial step in gathering important information that will inform a final decision on what areas should be designated as critical habitat for the spotted owl, based on … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the reporting function conferred upon the President by section 1043 of the National Defense … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by … [read more]

On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by Colonel Muammar Qadhafi, his government, … [read more]

The BioPreferred program—established by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-171)(2002 Farm Bill), and strengthened by the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-234)(2008 Farm Bill)—is intended to increase Federal procurement of biobased products to promote rural economic development, create new jobs, … [read more]

Winning the future and creating an economy that's built to last will require the Federal Government to wisely allocate scarce resources to maximize efficiency and effectiveness so that it can best support American competitiveness, innovation, and job growth. Creating good, high-paying jobs in the United States and ensuring sustainable economic … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the situation in or … [read more]

Every year, heart disease takes the lives of over half a million Americans, and it remains the leading cause of death in the United States. This devastating epidemic leaves no one untouched; its victims are fathers and daughters, grandparents and siblings, cherished friends and community members across our country. This … [read more]

The story of African Americans is a story of resilience and perseverance. It traces a people who refused to accept the circumstances under which they arrived on these shores, and it chronicles the generations who fought for an America that truly reflects the ideals enshrined in our founding documents. It … [read more]

In America, an alarming number of young people experience physical, sexual, or emotional abuse as part of a controlling or violent dating relationship. The consequences of dating violence—spanning impaired development to physical harm—pose a threat to the health and well-being of teens across our Nation, and it is essential we … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I herebydelegate to you the authority conferred upon the President by the Trafficking VictimsProtection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States of America, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961,as amended, (FAA) and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegateto you the authority, subject to … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I herebydelegate to you, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, the function to provide tothe Congress the information specified in section … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles … [read more]

On a hot summer day nearly half a century ago, an African American preacher with no official title or rank gave voice to our Nation’s deepest aspirations, sharing his dream of an America that ensured the true equality of all our people. From the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, the … [read more]

For nearly four centuries, men and women have immigrated to America’s shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from diverse backgrounds and faiths, countless settlers have shared a simple aspiration—to practice their beliefs free from prejudice and persecution. In 1786, the Virginia General Assembly took a bold step toward preserving … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

Thousands of Americans who are blind have embraced the entrepreneurial spirit that helps define our Nation as a land of opportunity. Through the Federal Randolph-Sheppard Vending Facility Program administered by the Department of Education, talented and creative individuals who are blind have acquired the management training and business skills necessary … [read more]

The Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 requires a determination, within 60 days of enactment, of whether the Keystone XL pipeline project as set forth in the permit application filed on September 19, 2008 (including amendments) (the “Keystone XL pipeline project”) would serve the national interest. The State … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of theUnited States of America, and consistent with section 2005 of the AmericanServicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-206; 22 U.S.C. 7421et seq .), concerning the participation of members of the Armed Forces ofthe United … [read more]

Nearly a century and a half ago, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation—a document that reaffirmed the noble goals of equality and freedom for all that lie at the heart of what it means to live in America. In the years since, we have tirelessly pursued the realization and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the function and authority conferred upon the President by section 1235(c) of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization … [read more]

1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to the President such modifications … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 503(b)(1)(G) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2463(b)(1)(G)), articles that the President determines to be import-sensitive in the context of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) are not eligible to receive benefits under the GSP. 2. Pursuant to section … [read more]

In our schools and in our neighborhoods, at home and in workplaces across our Nation, stalking endangers the physical and emotional well-being of millions of American men and women every year. Too often, stalking goes unreported and unaddressed, and we must take action against this unacceptable abuse. This month, we … [read more]

Every day, mentors help young Americans face the challenges of growing into adulthood. By setting a positive example and sharing their time, knowledge, and experience, mentors play an essential role in preparing our Nation’s youth for a bright future. During National Mentoring Month, we celebrate the contributions of all those … [read more]

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