A Collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh
218 Presidential Memoranda issued in 2014

1. In Proclamation 8921 of December 20, 2012, I determined that the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (Guinea-Bissau) was not making continual progress in meeting the requirements described in section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 (the 1974 Act) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth … [read more]

The United States has always been a land of exploration and innovation. Determined to build a Nation where all things were possible, our country's Founders crossed a vast ocean and launched an improbable experiment in democracy. Early pioneers pushed west across sweeping plains. Dreamers toiled with hearts and hands to … [read more]

By the winter of 1944, the United States and Allied forces had stormed the beaches of Normandy, thundered into Europe, and liberated Paris, turning the tide in the struggle against the forces of oppression. With the fate of freedom in peril, millions of Americans went to fight for people they … [read more]

For more than two centuries, our Nation has been shaped by courageous women and men who have dared to raise their voices and work to safeguard the blessings of liberty and justice. In the face of tyranny, early patriots stood up against an empire and proclaimed the independence of a … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

On December 10, 1948, nations from six continents came together to adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This extraordinary document affirmed that every individual is born equal with inalienable rights, and it is the responsibility of governments to uphold these rights. In more than 430 translations, the Declaration recognizes … [read more]

On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese planes thundered over Hawaii, dropping bombs in an unprovoked act of war against the United States. The attack claimed the lives of more than 2,400 Americans. It nearly destroyed our Pacific Fleet, but it could not shake our resolve. While battleships smoldered … [read more]

Each year, the United States joins with the international community to celebrate the inherent dignity and worth of every person. In America and in countries around the world, individuals with disabilities support families, strengthen their communities, and contribute to the global economy. On International Day of Persons with Disabilities, we … [read more]

All Americans deserve to live long and full lives, and every child should have the chance to seize his or her future. But throughout our Nation, too many lives are tragically cut short in traffic crashes involving drunk, drugged, or distracted driving. Impaired driving not only puts the driver at … [read more]

Thanksgiving Day invites us to reflect on the blessings we enjoy and the freedoms we cherish. As we gather with family and friends to take part in this uniquely American celebration, we give thanks for the extraordinary opportunities we have in a Nation of limitless possibilities, and we pay tribute … [read more]

In communities across our Nation and around the world, we have made extraordinary progress in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. Just over three decades ago, when we knew only the devastation HIV inflicted, those living with it had to fight just to be treated with dignity and compassion, and since … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, after carefully considering the report submitted to the Congress by the Energy Information Administration on October 30, 2014, and other relevant factors, including global economic conditions, increased oil production by certain countries, … [read more]

In big cities and small towns throughout our Nation, the strength and diversity of hardworking families reflect the promise of America—that with grit and determination, anyone can build a better future for themselves and their children. Families provide love and encouragement, and they are a source of support and inspiration … [read more]

In the faces of today's children we see tomorrow's leaders and innovators. Like their parents and grandparents before them, they have the potential to unearth new discoveries, pioneer bold inventions, and unlock groundbreaking solutions to longstanding problems. Every generation has sought to reach beyond the limits of the known world … [read more]

Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV, Public Law 110-457), as amended, I hereby determine that it is in the national interest of the United States: to waive the application of the prohibition in section 404(a) of the CSPA with respect to … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 … [read more]

Our country has long been a beacon of hope and opportunity for people from around the world. Nearly 40 million foreign-born residents nationwide contribute to their communities every day, including 3 million refugees who have resettled here since 1975. These new Americans significantly improve our economy. They make up 13 … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, immigrants have helped the United States build the world's strongest economy. Immigrants represent the majority of our Ph.D.s in math, computer science, and engineering, and over one quarter of all U.S.-based Nobel laureates over the past 50 years were foreign-born. Immigrants are also more than twice … [read more]

In the United States, every young person deserves access to a world-class education. In classrooms, lecture halls, and laboratories across America, high-quality education helps unlock the limitless potential of our Nation's students and creates pathways for their success. It prepares them for the jobs of tomorrow and the responsibilities of … [read more]

As a Nation, we must do all we can to leave the next generation a cleaner, safer, and more stable world. America's young people are tomorrow's environmental stewards, and it is our responsibility to instill in them a conservation ethic. Recycling reduces our country's energy consumption, decreases our greenhouse gas … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of … [read more]

Since the birth of our Nation, American patriots have stepped forward to serve our country and defend our way of life. With honor and distinction, generations of servicemen and women have taken up arms to win our independence, preserve our Union, and secure our freedom. From the Minutemen to our … [read more]

For nearly three decades, the Berlin Wall divided a nation and stood as one symbol of a system that denied individuals the freedoms that are the right of every person. It separated families and suppressed free will and self-determination—but while it tried to contain the yearnings of a courageous and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby direct the following: The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is authorized to exercise authority under Public Law 85-804, as amended (50 U.S.C. 1431et … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order (E.O.) 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and … [read more]

With hard work and determination, a great education should be within everyone's reach. At the heart of America's promise is the belief that we all deserve an equal opportunity to get ahead, and today more than ever—as we face greater global competition in a knowledge-based economy—a college degree is the … [read more]

Every year, our Nation pauses to reflect on the profound ways the First Americans have shaped our country's character and culture. The first stewards of our environment, early voices for the values that define our Nation, and models of government to our Founding Fathers—American Indians and Alaska Natives helped build … [read more]

Across our Nation, in laboratories and around kitchen tables, passionate and creative entrepreneurs are developing new sources of clean energy, cures for life-threatening diseases, and inventions that will transform the way we see the world. America has always been a country of risk takers and dreamers—where anyone who is willing … [read more]

Each day, courageous individuals step forward to help care for family members in need, their quiet acts of selflessness and sacrifice telling a story of love and devotion. Across our country, parents and children, siblings and spouses, friends and neighbors heroically give of themselves to support those in their lives … [read more]

Today, nearly 30 million Americans have diabetes. This devastating disease affects men and women of all backgrounds and ages, and can cause serious health complications, including blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, stroke, and the loss of lower limbs. During National Diabetes Month, we stand with all those battling this chronic, … [read more]

Across our Nation, as many as 5 million Americans live with Alzheimer's disease—currently an irreversible, incurable, and fatal disease. Together with their loved ones, these individuals experience the tragic realities of a disease that gradually erases cherished memories, affects behavior, and destroys the ability to live independently and carry out … [read more]

Every year, adoptive parents welcome tens of thousands of children and teenagers into supportive and loving families. These mothers and fathers provide their sons and daughters with the security and stability of a safe environment and the opportunity to learn, grow, and achieve their full potential. During National Adoption Month, … [read more]

Essential to our national security and economic growth, America's critical infrastructure—from our power plants and pipelines to our hospitals and highways—supports the physical and virtual systems that underpin American society. In a changing world, the increased interdependence of our country's most vital resources and networks has created new opportunities for … [read more]

For more than two centuries, members of our Armed Forces have defended our country with unyielding courage. In our Nation's times of need, these brave patriots step forward to answer America's call, leaving behind everything they know and love. And as they help secure our freedom and democracy, their families … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order (E.O.) 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of … [read more]

In 1945, in the shadow of a world war and the face of an uncertain future, 51 founding nations joined in common purpose to establish the United Nations and codify its mission to maintain international peace and security, encourage global cooperation, and promote universal respect for human rights. Nearly seven … [read more]

Our Nation's forests are an essential element of our urban spaces and rural landscape. Covering more than 750 million acres across America, they create opportunities for recreation and habitats for wildlife, and their products play an integral role in our Nation's economy and our daily lives. Paper and wood products … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order (E.O.) 13413, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of … [read more]

For generations, our Nation's beliefs in mutual respect, shared responsibility, and equality for all have strengthened our bond as a people and guided our path—uniting us in times of crisis and inspiring us in moments of triumph. During National Character Counts Week, we reaffirm the principles that built America and … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in Brazil's … [read more]

For half a century, our Nation has set aside one day every year to honor the contributions of blind and visually impaired Americans. In that time, we have built a more just and more inclusive society. We have torn down barriers to full participation in our democracy and economy—but more … [read more]

In every community across the globe, girls and women should have the opportunity to learn, grow, and achieve their full potential. All nations have a responsibility to protect the basic human rights of all people, and when they do—when girls and women are fully valued as equal participants in a … [read more]

More than 200 years ago, Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski answered the call of our fledgling Nation as we sought to secure liberty and justice. A Polish-born leader, he fought and sacrificed his life for a country not fully his own. He understood that the promise of our new Nation was … [read more]

Ensuring access to balanced, healthy meals for all young people is essential to their success, and it is our responsibility as a Nation. Today, more than 30 million children depend on the National School Lunch Program for daily nutrition, and more than 13 million children are able to start their … [read more]

Known as the crown to the Valley of Angels, the peaks of the San Gabriel Mountains frame the Los Angeles skyline. Over 15 million people live within 90 minutes of this island of green, which provides 70 percent of the open space for Angelenos and 30 percent of their drinking … [read more]

When Christopher Columbus—a son of Genoa, Italy—set sail across the Atlantic, no one could imagine the profound and lasting impact he would have on the world. In search of a westward route to Asia, he instead spotted the Bahamas. As dawn broke on October 12, 1492, Columbus's crew set foot … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered that: Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 of … [read more]

At a time when much of the world remained unknown, Leif Erikson—a son of Iceland and grandson of Norway—left his Nordic homeland and sailed westward across an unrelenting ocean. Landing in present-day Canada more than 1,000 years ago, Erikson and his crew became the first Europeans known to reach North … [read more]

America is and always has been a Nation of immigrants, and from our earliest days, German Americans have contributed to our national identity. Germans were among the first settlers in the original 13 Colonies, bringing their talents and ideas across the ocean to a new and unfamiliar world. And today, … [read more]

Fires can take lives, devastate communities, and destroy our homes and businesses. They pose a threat to Americans across our Nation, and they cost us billions of dollars each year. As we mark Fire Prevention Week, we emphasize the importance of taking steps to prevent fires, and we recognize the … [read more]

All children deserve equal opportunities to realize their potential and reach their dreams. Securing this promise for our daughters and sons begins with ensuring their health and well-being. As we pause on Child Health Day to reflect on this profound obligation, let us recommit to fostering a society where there … [read more]

1. Sections 501(1) and (4) of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2461(1) and (4)), provide that, in determining whether duty-free treatment would be appropriate under the Generalized System of Preferences, the President shall have due regard for, among other factors, the effect such action would … [read more]

With ingenuity and a determined spirit, hardworking Americans are creating products and unlocking new technologies that will shape our Nation and grow our economy. In uncertain times, our parents and grandparents built a robust manufacturing sector that spurred the world's largest economy and strongest middle class. When our generation faced … [read more]

Substance abuse disrupts our families, schools, and communities and limits the success of young people across our country. It destroys relationships and stands in the way of academic achievement. Every day, thousands of young Americans try drugs or alcohol for the first time, and for many, this decision will have … [read more]

Safeguarding America's energy future is an economic, environmental, and national security imperative. The energy choices we make today will have a substantial impact on the world we leave to our children and grandchildren. By pursuing an aggressive All-of-the-Above energy strategy, we can support economic growth and job creation, enhance energy … [read more]

Americans with disabilities lead thriving businesses, teach our children, and serve our Nation; they are innovators and pioneers of technology. In urban centers and rural communities, they carry forward our Nation's legacy of hard work, responsibility, and sacrifice, and their contributions strengthen our economy and remind us that all Americans … [read more]

Cyber threats pose one of the gravest national security dangers the United States faces. They jeopardize our country's critical infrastructure, endanger our individual liberties, and threaten every American's way of life. When our Nation's intellectual property is stolen, it harms our economy, and when a victim experiences online theft, fraud, … [read more]

Domestic violence affects every American. It harms our communities, weakens the foundation of our Nation, and hurts those we love most. It is an affront to our basic decency and humanity, and it must end. During National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we acknowledge the progress made in reducing these shameful … [read more]

In this complicated world and in these challenging times, the arts and humanities enhance the character of our Nation. The flash of insight that comes from watching a thought-provoking documentary or discovering a compelling novel sparks moments of joy, awe, and sorrow. From symphonies that bring tragedy to life with … [read more]

This year, more than 230,000 women and 2,000 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer in America. The heartache and the pain of this disease will touch too many of our mothers, fathers, daughters, and sisters, and too many families will bear these burdens. During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, … [read more]

For generations, mothers and families have given a piece of their heart to our Nation as their loved ones serve in our Armed Forces with honor and distinction. Seventy years ago, as Americans stormed an unforgiving beach, families waited anxiously for a call or a letter from an ocean away. … [read more]

Across America, hunting and fishing connect people of all ages to our Nation's splendor, instilling a conservation ethic that spans generations. As mist clears off glistening lakes and fog lifts from forests and grasslands, sportsmen and women carry forward a proud tradition rooted in self-reliance and environmental stewardship. On National … [read more]

From sandy beaches to snow-capped mountain tops, America's vast and varied landscapes stretch the breadth of our continent. These treasured spaces support outdoor recreation, serve as living classrooms and laboratories, and boost our local economies. Today, one-third of all our Nation's land is publicly owned—set aside for the use and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the authority under section 614 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (FAA) … [read more]

HASH(0xb40f8fc) The area around the Monument includes the waters and submerged lands to the extent of the seaward limit of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone (“U.S. EEZ”) up to 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea of these seven Pacific Remote Islands … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386) (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea, … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and consistent with section 2005 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7424), concerning the participation of members of the Armed Forces of the United States in … [read more]

For generations, the promise of an education has been a beacon of hope for millions of Americans seeking a better life. At a time when it was deemed illegal for African Americans to learn to read or write, brave men and women took great risks to learn these skills in … [read more]

Across our Nation, farmers and ranchers labor through difficult and often dangerous conditions to write their chapter in the narrative that sustains our Union. It is the story of hard work and ingenuity that built our country—of a farmer who stretches the last moments of daylight to tend his crops … [read more]

On the eve of our Nation's birth, a courageous people stood up to the tyranny of an empire and declared their independence. They proclaimed the values of equality and justice and fought a revolution to secure them. In 13 colonies, farmers and tradesmen laid their lives on the line, picked … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State: (1) The authority under section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 … [read more]

America's history shines with patriots who have answered the call to serve. From Minutemen who gathered on a green in Lexington to a great generation that faced down Communism and all those in our military today, their sacrifices have strengthened our Nation and helped secure more than two centuries of … [read more]

The participation of civil society is fundamental to democratic governance. Through civil society, citizens come together to hold their leaders accountable and address challenges that governments cannot tackle alone. Civil society organizations—such as community groups, non-governmental organizations, labor unions, indigenous groups, charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, and foundations—often drive … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit and/or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the President declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign … [read more]

Eleven years after a small band of patriots declared the independence of our new Nation, our Framers set out to refine the promise of liberty and codify the principles of our Republic. Though the topics were contentious and the debate fierce, the delegates' shared ideals and commitment to a more … [read more]

Nearly 50 years after the United States first observed what was then National Hispanic Heritage Week, Hispanics represent a vibrant and thriving part of our diverse Nation. Their histories and cultures stretch across centuries, and the contributions of those who come to our shores today in search of their dreams … [read more]

In America, every child should have access to a world-class education. Our Nation's classrooms cultivate and challenge young minds and build a skilled and competitive workforce, securing a brighter future for our children and our country. Across America, Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) provide essential education opportunities and play a vital role … [read more]

America will never forget the September tragedy that shook our Nation's core 13 years ago. On a day that began like so many others, a clear blue sky was pierced by billowing black smoke as a wave of grief crashed over us. But in one of our darkest moments, we … [read more]

Twenty years ago, our Nation came together to declare our commitment to end violence against women. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), written by then United States Senator Joe Biden and signed into law on September 13, 1994, changed the way our country responds to domestic abuse and sexual assault. … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 12, 2013 (78 FR 57225, September 17, 2013), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2014. I … [read more]

Each year, we pause to salute the grandmothers and grandfathers who strengthen our families and shape our Nation. Through decades of hard work, they have broken down barriers and blazed pathways for the generations that followed, and they continue to provide inspiration and support to their children and grandchildren. On … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the authority under section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to … [read more]

In the footprints of two mighty towers, at a hallowed field where heroic actions saved even more heartbreak and destruction, and outside a Pentagon wall where we have rebuilt but still remember—in these sacred sites and in quiet corners across our country, we join together this week to remember the … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C. 1622(d), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency previously declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on … [read more]

Each year, pediatric cancer interrupts the childhood and limits the potential of thousands of young Americans. It is estimated that almost 16,000 of our daughters and sons under the age of 20 will be diagnosed with cancer this year, and it remains the leading cause of disease-related death for children. … [read more]

Childhood obesity is one of the most urgent health issues we face in the United States. Nearly one in three American children are overweight or obese, putting them at risk for many immediate and long-term health problems—including high cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. As a Nation, … [read more]

Ovarian cancer is the most deadly of all female reproductive system cancers. This year nearly 22,000 Americans will be diagnosed with this cancer, and more than 14,000 will die from it. The lives of mothers and daughters will be taken too soon, and the pain of this disease will touch … [read more]

In times of emergency, our Nation pulls together—neighbors support each other, communities react with compassion, and afterward, our country emerges stronger and more resilient. But before emergencies occur, we must make sure we are ready to respond, and it is every American's responsibility to be prepared. There are simple but … [read more]

Fifty years ago, a forward-thinking Nation came together, a President put pen to paper, and a great society secured an enduring gift for future generations. Signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964, the Wilderness Act and the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act began a new era … [read more]

On Labor Day, we honor the legacy of our working women and men who have played a defining role in the American story and all those who carry forward our Nation's proud tradition of hard work, responsibility, and sacrifice. From assembly lines to classrooms, across highways and steel mills, American … [read more]

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among American men. They are fathers, brothers, and sons—and this year, more than 230,000 of them are expected to be diagnosed with this disease. During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we honor all those whose lives have been touched by this … [read more]

Every day, courageous men and women take the first step toward reclaiming their lives from substance use disorders. We recognize the strength and resolve of these individuals who have committed to recovery, and we are reminded that in the face of great trials, Americans have always drawn on the power … [read more]

On August 26, 1920, the 19th Amendment was certified, securing for women the fundamental right to vote. The product of decades spent organizing, protesting, and agitating, it was a turning point on the long march toward equality for all, and it inspired generations of courageous women who took up this … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2318(a)(1) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that an unforeseen emergency exists that requires immediate military assistance to France in its efforts to secure Mali, Niger, and Chad from terrorists … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that … [read more]

In the United States of America, no one should have to live in poverty just because they get sick. Families deserve quality, affordable health care and the peace of mind that comes with it—regardless of who they are, where they live, or what language they speak. Today, nearly 1,300 health … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. ). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond … [read more]

Over two decades ago, Americans—some in wheelchairs, some using sign language, and all with an abiding belief in our Nation's promise—came together to strengthen our commitment to equality for all. At a time when people with disabilities were turned away at movie theaters, rejected for employment, and measured by what … [read more]

Our Nation thrives when we fulfill the promise of opportunity for all—when each of us has the same chance to succeed, when every American can find pride and independence in their work, when our shared prosperity rests upon the broad shoulders of a rising middle class. With talent, dedication, and … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Lebanon pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Around the world, one in twelve people are living with viral hepatitis. In the United States, millions of Americans are infected with this life-threatening disease, with more than two-thirds unaware of their infection status. Viral hepatitis can persist undetected for many years before revealing any symptoms, leading to long-term liver … [read more]

More than six decades ago, courageous Americans joined Korean patriots as they defended their right to decide their own fate. They fought through mud, snow, and heavy fire. As they stood firm against the tide of Communism, nearly 37,000 Americans gave their last full measure of devotion. Thanks to all … [read more]

As the grip of the Cold War tightened, America pledged our solidarity to every nation held captive behind the Iron Curtain and every individual who refused to accept that fate. We stood with them through a long twilight struggle until—from Europe to South America to Southeast Asia—democracy took root, a … [read more]

On July 24, 2011, by Executive Order 13581, I declared a national emergency with respect to transnational criminal organizations pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State the reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 4 of the Support … [read more]

Few achievements have defined our national identity as distinctly or as powerfully as the passage of the Civil Rights Act. It transformed our understanding of justice, equality, and democracy and advanced our long journey toward a more perfect Union. It helped bring an end to the Jim Crow era, banning … [read more]

1. In Proclamation 8468 of December 23, 2009, I determined that the Republic of Madagascar (Madagascar) was not making continual progress in meeting the requirements described in section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth … [read more]

In the Second World War, a generation risked their lives for people they had never met and ideals none of us could live without. As they fought to liberate a continent and safeguard the American way of life, our Nation resolved to serve them as well as they were serving … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order (E.O.) 13219, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United … [read more]

On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order (E.O.) 13466, the President declared a national emergency with respect to North Korea pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States … [read more]

On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the risk of nuclear proliferation … [read more]

To attract, empower, and retain a talented and productive workforce in the 21st century, the Federal Government must continue to make progress in enabling employees to balance their responsibilities at work and at home. We should build on our record of leadership through better education and training, expanded availability of … [read more]

Our Nation is home to a long line of innovators who have fueled our economy and transformed our world. Through the generations, American inventors have lit our homes, propelled humanity into the skies, and helped people across the planet connect at the click of a button. American manufacturers have never … [read more]

Pollinators contribute substantially to the economy of the United States and are vital to keeping fruits, nuts, and vegetables in our diets. Honey bee pollination alone adds more than $15 billion in value to agricultural crops each year in the United States. Over the past few decades, there has been … [read more]

Fatherhood is among the most difficult and rewarding jobs a man can have. It demands constant attention, frequent sacrifice, and a healthy dose of patience. Even in a time when technology allows us to connect instantly with almost anyone on earth, there is no substitute for a father's presence, care, … [read more]

Each year, the international community renews its commitment to addressing a human rights issue that too often goes ignored—elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Elder abuse damages public health and threatens millions of our parents, grandparents, and friends. It is a crisis that knows no borders or socio-economic lines. On World … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, after carefully considering the report submitted to the Congress by the Energy Information Administration on April 24, 2014, and other relevant factors, including global economic conditions, increased oil production by certain countries, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

Over farmlands and town squares, atop skyscrapers and capitol buildings, the American flag soars. It reminds us of our history—13 colonies that rose up against an empire—and celebrates the spirit of 50 proud States that form our Union today. On Flag Day and during National Flag Week, we pay tribute … [read more]

On June 6, 1944, before dawn broke across the beaches of Normandy, scores of allied service members prepared to fight a battle that would decide the fate of freedom in the 20th century. The odds weighed against them. That year, the Nazis had fortified the Atlantic Wall against a seaborne … [read more]

A college education is the single most important investment that Americans can make in their futures. College remains a good investment, resulting in higher earnings and a lower risk of unemployment. Unfortunately, for many low- and middle-income families, college is slipping out of reach. Over the past three decades, the … [read more]

Americans look to the oceans as natural treasures, a source of food and energy, and a foundation for our way of life. Our oceans, coasts, and Great Lakes provide jobs and attract tourism. They provide a habitat for scores of species. They are vital to our Nation's transportation, economy, and … [read more]

Our country is home to a proud legacy of African-American musicians whose songs transcend genre. They make us move, make us think, and make us feel the full range of emotion—from the pain of isolation to the power of human connection. During African-American Music Appreciation Month, we celebrate artists whose … [read more]

On windswept coastlines, in lush forests, and atop striking mountain peaks, Americans take in sights that have inspired generations. Our natural landscapes provide refuge for those seeking solitude. They attract tourism, create jobs, and honor our history and cultural heritage. They are family campgrounds, arenas for recreation, and backdrops for … [read more]

As progress spreads from State to State, as justice is delivered in the courtroom, and as more of our fellow Americans are treated with dignity and respect—our Nation becomes not only more accepting, but more equal as well. During Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Month, we celebrate victories … [read more]

Caribbean Americans are part of a great national tradition, descendants of hopeful, striving people who journeyed to our lands in search of a better life. They were drawn by a belief in the power of opportunity, a belief that through hard work and sacrifice, they could provide their children with … [read more]

Constant in the American narrative is the story of men and women who loved our country so deeply they were willing to give their all to keep it safe and free. When a revolution needed to be won and our Union needed to be preserved, brave patriots stepped forward. When … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”) (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1)), I hereby determine, pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Act, that it is important to … [read more]

Hurricanes can demolish towns, obliterate coastlines, and devastate families. We cannot eliminate the threats they pose, but with careful planning, we can better protect ourselves, our loved ones, and our communities. During National Hurricane Preparedness Week, America fortifies our homes and businesses so that we are ready long before these … [read more]

In southern New Mexico, surrounding the city of Las Cruces in the Río Grande's fertile Mesilla Valley, five iconic mountain ranges rise above Chihuahuan Desert grasslands: the Robledo, Sierra de las Uvas, Doña Ana, Organ, and Potrillo Mountains. These mountain ranges and lowlands form the Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks area. The … [read more]

America's open seas have long been a source of prosperity and strength, and since before our Nation's founding, the men and women of the United States Merchant Marine have defended them. From securing Atlantic routes during the naval battles of the Revolutionary War to supplying our Armed Forces around the … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by obstacles to the continued … [read more]

Wherever and whenever crisis hits, the men and women of our emergency medical services (EMS) rush to the scene. With unyielding steadiness, they bring care to those who need it most. During Emergency Medical Services Week, we show our gratitude to the EMS practitioners who aid our families, friends, and … [read more]

Our Nation's lakes, rivers, and oceans provide havens for reflection and offer boundless opportunities for recreation with loved ones. As we mark National Safe Boating Week, we emphasize the importance of taking precautions and practicing responsible behavior when embarking on America's waterways. Before leaving shore, boaters can reduce their risks … [read more]

Commercial ties build partnerships between nations and spur growth across the world. Here in America, trade bolsters our small businesses, which make up 98 percent of our exporters and create nearly two out of every three new jobs. During World Trade Week, we celebrate these benefits, and we redouble our … [read more]

In every generation, there are men and women who stand apart. They put on the uniform and put their lives on the line so the rest of us might live in a safer, freer, more just world. They defend us in times of peace, times of war, and times of … [read more]

May 17, 1954, marked a turning point in America's journey toward a more perfect Union. On that day, the Supreme Court handed down a unanimous decision in Ferguson. For more than half a century, Plessy gave constitutional backing to discrimination, and civil rights organizations like the National Association for the … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma had committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

On May 16, 2012, by Executive Order 13611, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of … [read more]

Small businesses represent an ideal at the heart of our Nation's promise—that with ingenuity and hard work, anyone can build a better life. They are also the lifeblood of our economy, employing half of our country's workforce and creating nearly two out of every three new American jobs. During National … [read more]

As Americans, we strive for a Nation of broad-based prosperity, where hard work pays off and everyone can go as far as their dreams allow. Over the past half-century, women have opened up vast horizons for themselves and their daughters. Yet many still work harder for less, and because of … [read more]

Each year, America sets aside a week to salute the men and women who do the difficult, dangerous, and often thankless work of safeguarding our communities. Our Nation's peace officers embody the very idea of citizenship—that along with our rights come responsibilities, both to ourselves and to others. During Peace … [read more]

For over a century, Americans have come together to celebrate our first friends and mentors, our inspirations and constant sources of strength. Our mothers are breadwinners, community leaders, and pillars of family. They pioneer scientific discoveries, serve with valor in our Armed Forces, and represent our Nation in the loftiest … [read more]

In today's global economy, first-class jobs gravitate to first-class infrastructure. A sound transportation system allows businesses to safely move their goods to market, and maintaining that system creates jobs upgrading ports, unclogging commutes, and repairing roads and rails. During National Defense Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, we underscore the … [read more]

Our military spouses embody ideals we cherish: strength, loyalty, and commitment. They stand beside those who stand behind our flag, giving their all and making tremendous sacrifices. They shoulder the burdens of countless moves and stressful deployments, and they uphold their end of the bargain. On Military Spouse Appreciation Day, … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003, Public Law 108-175, the President issued Executive Order 13338, in which he declared a national emergency with respect to the actions … [read more]

At the heart of who we are as Americans is the simple but profound idea that no matter who you are, what you look like, or where you come from, if you work hard and meet your responsibilities, you can succeed. Our Nation can only realize this idea through the … [read more]

Every child deserves to grow, learn, and dream in a supportive and loving environment. During National Foster Care Month, we recognize the almost 400,000 young people in foster care and the foster parents and dedicated professionals who are making a difference in their lives. We also rededicate ourselves to giving … [read more]

Older Americans have fortified our country and shaped our world. They have made groundbreaking discoveries, pioneered new industries, led our Nation's businesses, and advanced our unending journey toward a more perfect Union. They have raised strong families and strengthened communities. And with unwavering courage and patriotism, many rose in defense … [read more]

More than two centuries ago, patriots battled to release America from the grip of tyranny. As these brave citizens defended their right to shape their own destiny, our Founders created a government of, by, and for the people—rooted in the belief that just power derives from the consent of the … [read more]

One of our Nation's great strengths is the freedom we hold dear, including the freedom to exercise our faiths freely. For many Americans, prayer is an essential act of worship and a daily discipline. Today and every day, prayers will be said for comfort for those who mourn, healing for … [read more]

Over 150 years ago, as a civil war threatened to dissolve our Union, President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address. Defining the American experiment as “conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that `all men are created equal,' ” he resolved that our Nation “shall not perish from the earth.” … [read more]

Sports keep children healthy, teach them to work as part of a team, and help them develop the discipline to achieve their goals. During National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, we encourage America's sons and daughters to get active and challenge everyone to join the movement for a happier, fitter … [read more]

Despite great strides in our understanding of mental illness and vast improvements in the dialogue surrounding it, too many still suffer in silence. Tens of millions of Americans face mental health conditions like depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. During National Mental Health Awareness Month, we reaffirm … [read more]

For thousands of years, the Jewish people have sustained their identity and traditions, persevering in the face of persecution. Through generations of enslavement and years of wandering, through forced segregation and the horrors of the Holocaust, they have maintained their holy covenant and lived according to the Torah. Their pursuit … [read more]

During Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) Heritage Month, we celebrate the accomplishments of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, and we reflect on the many ways they have enriched our Nation. Like America itself, the AAPI community draws strength from the diversity of its many distinct cultures—each with … [read more]

America's buildings do more than house people and goods. They embody innovation; inspire creativity; and provide foundations for families, businesses, and communities. During National Building Safety Month, we celebrate the dedicated professionals who keep our buildings secure, and we recommit to maintaining resilient, energy-efficient infrastructure. Because this is not a … [read more]

America is built on the promise of opportunity. We believe that everyone should have a chance to succeed, that what matters is the strength of our work ethic, the scope of our dreams, and our willingness to take responsibility for ourselves and each other. Yet each year, workplace illness and … [read more]

Over four decades ago, Americans from all walks of life came together to tackle a shared challenge. Pollution damaged our health and livelihoods—from children swimming in contaminated streams to workers exposed to dangerous chemicals to city residents living under a thick haze of smog. The first Earth Day was a … [read more]

To honor America's natural beauty and cultural heritage, the National Park Service will offer free admission this weekend. This celebration opens opportunities to take in the majesty of canyons, redwoods, and geysers—to learn the history of Civil War battles and Civil Rights marches. During National Park Week, I encourage Americans … [read more]

On Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, the Western Hemisphere celebrates a significant anniversary in our shared history—the birth of the International Union of American Republics, forerunner to the Organization of American States. In the 124 years since, our nations have faced great challenges and achieved great progress. … [read more]

In the United States of America, every child should have the chance to go as far as their passions and hard work will take them. Education not only prepares young people to enter the workforce, it also expands their horizons, teaches them to think critically about the world around them, … [read more]

Since the earliest days of our Republic, the brave men and women of our Armed Forces have answered the call to serve. They have put their lives on the line for our Nation, and many have sacrificed their own freedom to safeguard ours. On National Former Prisoner of War Recognition … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, brave women have torn down barriers so their daughters might one day enjoy the same rights, same chances, and same freedoms as their sons. Despite tremendous progress, too many women are entering the workforce to find their mothers' and grandmothers' victories undermined by the unrealized promise … [read more]

Through countless acts of kindness, generosity, and service, Americans recognize that we are all bound together—that we move this country forward by giving of ourselves to others and caring for those around us. Every day, Americans carry forward the tradition of service embedded in our character as a people. And … [read more]

This year marks 30 years since the passage of the Victims of Crime Act and the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and two decades since the Violence Against Women Act became law. These milestones represented major steps toward upholding the rights of millions of Americans who become victims of … [read more]

On April 12, 2010, by Executive Order 13536, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the deterioration of the security … [read more]

While working women have made extraordinary progress over the past five decades since enactment of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, they still earn only 77 cents for every dollar that a man earns. For African-American women and Latinas, the pay gap is even greater. This pay differential shortchanges women … [read more]

Each year, people across the globe take time to recognize the millions of people living on the autism spectrum, including 1 out of every 68 American children. Americans with autism contribute to all aspects of society and are an essential thread in the diverse tapestry of our Nation. On World … [read more]

In the United States of America, every child should have every chance in life, every chance at happiness, and every chance at success. Yet tragically, hundreds of thousands of young Americans shoulder the burden of abuse or neglect. As a Nation, we must do better. During National Child Abuse Prevention … [read more]

Over the past two decades, our Nation has achieved great progress in the fight against cancer. Americans have better tools to decrease their risk, and medical advances have made many forms of cancer more preventable, detectable, and treatable than ever. Despite these strides, cancer remains the second leading cause of … [read more]

Every April, our Nation comes together to renew our stand against a crime that affronts our basic decency and humanity. Sexual assault threatens every community in America, and we all have a role to play in protecting those we love most—our mothers and fathers, our husbands and wives, our daughters … [read more]

Thanks to the grit and determination of the American people, our Nation has cleared away the rubble of the worst recession since the Great Depression. As we continue to create jobs and grow our economy, families strive to rebuild their finances and shore up their futures. During National Financial Capability … [read more]

Each day, in quiet hospital rooms and busy offices, in familiar sanctuaries and family living rooms, people make the courageous decision to give the gift of life. After passing his first driving test, an elated teenager adds a lifesaving symbol to his license. While struggling to comprehend their own loss, … [read more]

On Cesar Chavez Day, we celebrate one of America's greatest champions for social justice. Raised into the life of a migrant farm worker, he toiled alongside men, women, and children who performed daily, backbreaking labor for meager pay and in deplorable conditions. They were exposed to dangerous pesticides and denied … [read more]

Almost two centuries ago, the people of Greece laid claim to their independence and began a long struggle to restore democracy to its birthplace. Greek Americans crossed oceans to fight for the freedom of their ancestral homeland, and through two World Wars and a Cold War, Greece and the United … [read more]

Over the past four decades, America has seen a steep decline in childhood deaths from accidental poisonings—thanks in part to improved safety measures and increased public awareness. During National Poison Prevention Week, we do our part to remain vigilant, ask our loved ones to use common-sense precautions, and learn about … [read more]

Through Proclamation 7264 of January 11, 2000, President Clinton established the California Coastal National Monument (monument) to protect the biological treasures situated offshore on thousands of unappropriated or unreserved islands, rocks, exposed reefs, and pinnacles owned or controlled by the Government of the United States within 12 nautical miles of … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the laws of the United States of America, and in accordance with section 251A of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act (the “Act”), as amended, 2 U.S.C. 901a, I hereby order that, on October 1, 2014, direct spending budgetary … [read more]

The Fair Labor Standards Act (the “Act”), 29 U.S.C. 201et seq., provides basic rights and wage protections for American workers, including Federal minimum wage and overtime requirements. Most workers covered under the Act must receive overtime pay of at least 1.5 times their regular pay rate for hours worked in … [read more]

Centuries after America welcomed the first sons and daughters of the Emerald Isle to our shores, Irish heritage continues to enrich our Nation. This month, we reflect on proud traditions handed down through the generations, and we celebrate the many threads of green woven into the red, white, and blue. … [read more]

On the bloodied battlefields of the Civil War, Clara Barton risked her life to aid the wounded, raise spirits, and deliver dearly needed medical supplies. She went on to found the American Red Cross in 1881, which would carry forward her legacy of compassion. Since then, service and relief organizations … [read more]

The second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, colorectal cancer claims more than 50,000 American lives each year. Because the odds of survival rise dramatically when this cancer is caught early, calling attention to it can save lives. During National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month, we aim to … [read more]

Literacy is the foundation of every child's education. It opens doorways to opportunity, transports us across time and space, and binds family and friends closer together. When parents, educators, librarians, and mentors read with children, they give a gift that will nourish souls for a lifetime. Today, Americans young and … [read more]

The premise that we are all created equal is the opening line in the American story, and while we do not promise equal outcomes, we have always strived to deliver equal opportunity. When everyone gets a fair shot, does their fair share, and plays by the same set of rules, … [read more]

Throughout our Nation's history, American women have led movements for social and economic justice, made groundbreaking scientific discoveries, enriched our culture with stunning works of art and literature, and charted bold directions in our foreign policy. They have served our country with valor, from the battlefields of the Revolutionary War … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, the President declared a national emergency and blocked the property of certain persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

Over the course of my Administration, we have made consistent progress on important goals such as reducing high school dropout rates and lowering unemployment and crime. Yet as the Congress, State and local governments, research institutions, and leading private-sector organizations have all recognized, persistent gaps in employment, educational outcomes, and … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by … [read more]

On February 25, 2011, by Executive Order 13566, I declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. I found that Colonel Muammar Qadhafi, his … [read more]

Two decades ago, President William J. Clinton directed the Federal Government to tackle a long-overlooked problem. Low-income neighborhoods, communities of color, and tribal areas disproportionately bore environmental burdens like contamination from industrial plants or landfills and indoor air pollution from poor housing conditions. These hazards worsen health disparities and reduce … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the situation in or … [read more]

Maintaining a strong heart is key to a long and healthy life. The number one killer of American men and women, cardiovascular disease is responsible for one out of every four deaths in the United States. During American Heart Month, we renew our fight, both as a Nation and in … [read more]

Each year, 1 in 10 American teenagers suffers physical violence at the hands of a boyfriend or girlfriend, and many others are sexually or emotionally abused. Dating violence can inflict long-lasting pain, putting survivors at increased risk of substance abuse, depression, poor academic performance, and experiencing further violence from a … [read more]

Americans have long celebrated our Nation as a beacon of liberty and opportunity—home to patriots who threw off an empire, refuge to multitudes who fled oppression and despair. Yet we must also remember that while many came to our shores to pursue their own measure of freedom, hundreds of thousands … [read more]

The Federal Government is America's largest employer. While seeking to employ a talented and productive workforce, it has a responsibility to lead by example. Although executive departments and agencies (agencies) generally can, and do, take job applicants' employment history and other factors into account when making hiring decisions, it is … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and consistent with section 2005 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (22 U.S.C. 7424), concerning the participation of members of the Armed Forces of the United States in … [read more]

Giving workers the opportunity to acquire the skills that they need to pursue in-demand jobs and careers is critical to growing our economy, ensuring that everyone who works hard is rewarded, and building a strong middle class. Despite recent employment growth, far too many hard-working individuals still have not been … [read more]

All Americans deserve the ability to save for retirement. Since taking office, my Administration has committed to strengthening retirement security for all Americans, including by helping workers find ways to save for retirement and to protect those hard earned savings. Unfortunately, too few Americans have enough savings to maintain their … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Third Amendment to the Agreement for Co-operation Between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency, signed at Vienna on May 11, 1959, as amended and extended February 12, 1974, and January 14, 1980, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of … [read more]

In Presidential document 2014-01413 beginning on page 3719 in the issue of Wednesday, January 22, 2014, make the following correction: On page 3719, the date following the Proclamation number should read “January 16, 2014”. … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

Each year, America sets aside a day to remember a giant of our Nation's history and a pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement. During his lifelong struggle for justice and equality, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., gave mighty voice to the quiet hopes of millions, offered a redemptive … [read more]

The prevalence of rape and sexual assault at our Nation's institutions of higher education is both deeply troubling and a call to action. Studies show that about one in five women is a survivor of attempted or completed sexual violence while in college. In addition, a substantial number of men … [read more]

In 1786, the Virginia General Assembly affirmed an ideal that has long been central to the American journey. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, penned by Thomas Jefferson, declared religious liberty a natural right and any attempt to subvert it “a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of … [read more]

The submerged lands surrounding the islands of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas), Maug, and Asuncion in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands are among the most biologically diverse in the Western Pacific, with relatively pristine coral reef ecosystems that have been proclaimed objects of scientific interest and reserved for their … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, the authority conferred … [read more]

Affordable, clean, and secure energy and energy services are essential for improving U.S. economic productivity, enhancing our quality of life, protecting our environment, and ensuring our Nation's security. Achieving these goals requires a comprehensive and integrated energy strategy resulting from interagency dialogue and active engagement of external stakeholders. To help … [read more]

In every corner of our Nation, mentors push our next generation to shape their ambitions, set a positive course, and achieve their boundless potential. During National Mentoring Month, we celebrate everyone who teaches, inspires, and guides young Americans as they reach for their dreams. Mentors help children build confidence, gain … [read more]

Over a century and a half after President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, millions remain in bondage—children forced to take part in armed conflict or sold to brothels by their destitute families, men and women who toil for little or no pay, who are threatened and beaten if they … [read more]

Each January, we draw attention to a crime that will affect 1 in 6 American women at some point in their lives. Although young women are disproportionately at risk, anyone can be a victim of stalking—regardless of age, sex, background, or gender identity. While many victims are stalked by ex-partners, … [read more]

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