1521 Presidential Memoranda issued by George W. Bush

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 671(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161), I hereby: HASH(0xaaee128) HASH(0xae609b8) You are authorized and directed to report this determination … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Arab Emirates Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the … [read more]

On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, we recognize one of history’s most consequential advocates for equality and civil rights, and we celebrate his powerful message of justice and hope. Our Nation is better because Dr. King was a man of courage and vision who understood that love and … [read more]

In order to foster greater resolve to address trafficking in persons (TIP), specifically in punishing acts of trafficking and providing protections to the victims of these crimes, consistent with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (the “Act”) (22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq .), it is in the … [read more]

1. On April 12, 2006, the United States entered into the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (the “Agreement”), and on June 24 and June 25, 2007, the Parties to the Agreement signed a protocol amending the Agreement. Congress approved the Agreement as amended in section 101(a) of the United States-Peru … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

All human life is a gift from our Creator that is sacred, unique, and worthy of protection. On National Sanctity of Human Life Day, our country recognizes that each person, including every person waiting to be born, has a special place and purpose in this world. We also underscore our … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including the Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-286) (JADE Act) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, in order to ensure that the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 … [read more]

Religious freedom is the foundation of a healthy and hopeful society. On Religious Freedom Day, we recognize the importance of the 1786 passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. We also celebrate the first liberties enshrined in our Constitution’s Bill of Rights, which guarantee the free exercise of religion … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 10(d)(1) of the United Nations Participation Act of 1945, as amended (22 U.S.C. 287e-2(d)(1)), I hereby determine that provision of assistance to the United Nations/African Union Mission in … [read more]

The Pacific Remote Islands area consists of Wake, Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, and Palmyra Atoll, which lie to the south and west of Hawaii. With the exception of Wake Island, these islands are administered as National Wildlife Refuges by the United States Fish and Wildlife … [read more]

In the Pacific Ocean approximately 130 nautical miles east-southeast of Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa, lies Rose Atoll—the easternmost Samoan island and the southernmost point of the United States. This small atoll, which includes the Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge with about 20 acres of land and 1,600 acres of … [read more]

Over approximately 480 nautical miles, the Mariana Archipelago encompasses the 14 islands of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States Territory of Guam that sit atop the Mariana Ridge in an area known as the Mariana Volcanic Arc. The Mariana Volcanic Arc is part … [read more]

During National Mentoring Month, we recognize the millions of individuals who dedicate themselves to making a difference in the lives of others, and we underscore our commitment to supporting these soldiers in America's armies of compassion. Every day across our great Nation, men and women of many different backgrounds … [read more]

1. On April 22, 1985, the United States and Israel entered into the Agreement on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Israel (USIFTA), which the Congress approved in the United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act … [read more]

1. On January 19, 2006, the United States entered into the United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”). The Congress approved the Agreement in section 101(a) of the United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “Implementation Act”) (Public Law 109-283, 120 Stat. 1191) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). 2. Section … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (the “Agreement countries”). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., I hereby: 1. Determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function conferred upon the President by section 14(b) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese Junta's … [read more]

Our history is rich with pioneers and innovators who used their God-given talents to improve our Nation and the world. On Wright Brothers Day, we commemorate two brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, who took great risks and ushered in a new era of travel and discovery. With intrepid spirits and … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

The United States was founded on the principle that government must respect people's rights to speak freely, worship as they choose, and pursue their dreams in liberty. As we remember the enduring importance of our Constitution's Bill of Rights, our thoughts turn to those who have yet to secure these … [read more]

Beginning at Pearl Harbor with the day of infamy that saw the sinking of the USS ARIZONA and ending on the deck of the USS MISSOURI in Tokyo Bay, many of the key battles of World War II were waged on and near American shores and throughout the Pacific. We … [read more]

On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we mourn the more than 2,400 Americans whose lives were lost in the surprise attack on our homeland that changed the course of history. Their service and sacrifice and the service and sacrifice of all our World War II veterans will be forever honored … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. , it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession . Subject to the provisions of section … [read more]

During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, we underscore our commitment to raising awareness about the tragedies that often result from driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Nearly 13,000 Americans died last year as a result of drunk driving. During the holidays, people are more likely to … [read more]

As Americans, we believe in the inherent dignity and value of every man, woman, and child. On World AIDS Day, we recommit ourselves to the global challenge of combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and to showing our compassion for those affected here at home and around the world. The fight against … [read more]

1. Section 404 of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “CAFTA-DR Act”), as added by section 2 of Public Law 110-436, 122 Stat. 4976, provides for preferential tariff treatment of eligible apparel articles wholly assembled in an eligible country and imported directly from an … [read more]

Thanksgiving is a time for families and friends to gather together and express gratitude for all that we have been given, the freedoms we enjoy, and the loved ones who enrich our lives. We recognize that all of these blessings, and life itself, come not from the hand of man … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including 3 U.S.C. 301 and 46 U.S.C. chapter 539, I hereby approve the provision by the Secretary of Transportation of insurance or reinsurance of vessels (including cargo and crew) against loss or damage … [read more]

During National Family Week, we reflect on the important values and character that families instill in their children and in our society. Families offer a stable and nurturing environment for children by providing support and comfort. A child's parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and other family members show them … [read more]

Farmers and ranchers display the values of hard work and good stewardship, and National Farm-City Week is an opportunity to recognize these individuals and their urban partners for contributing to our Nation's well-being. Farming, America's first industry, helps feed and clothe our citizens and increasingly provides more of our energy. … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Arab Emirates Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of the interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the … [read more]

On America Recycles Day, we highlight the importance of recycling as a way to safeguard and protect the environment and preserve our precious natural resources. We live in a country of splendor and beauty, and no matter which State each of us calls home, we all have a responsibility to … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On World Freedom Day, we celebrate the anniversary of the historic fall of the Berlin Wall and honor the brave citizens of East and West Germany who helped secure freedom and liberty for future generations. The Berlin Wall stood as a barrier that isolated the victims of imperial Communism and … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

During National Hospice Month, we honor the dedicated health care professionals and volunteers who help the terminally ill spend their final days in comfort and with dignity. Hospice care providers and other compassionate individuals are a constant reminder that the greatness of America lies in the hearts and souls of … [read more]

During National Adoption Month, we recognize the compassion of adoptive and foster families as we seek to raise awareness of the need for every child in America to have a safe, loving, and permanent home. Adopting a child is a great joy and also a great responsibility. Parents are a … [read more]

On Veterans Day, we pay tribute to the service and sacrifice of the men and women who in defense of our freedom have bravely worn the uniform of the United States. From the fields and forests of war-torn Europe to the jungles of Southeast Asia, from the deserts of Iraq … [read more]

Many Americans, of all ages and backgrounds, are affected by diabetes. National Diabetes Month is an opportunity to inform individuals about the risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this serious disease. Diabetes is a debilitating disease that results from the body's inability to produce or use insulin effectively. Type 1 … [read more]

During National American Indian Heritage Month, we celebrate the rich ancestry of American Indians and Alaska Natives and recognize their many contributions to our national story. Native Americans have enriched our heritage and added to all aspects of our society. Our country is blessed to have their character and strength, … [read more]

During National Family Caregivers Month we recognize and celebrate the many individuals throughout our country who work each day to ensure a better quality of life for their family members. Through their selfless action, these caregivers provide their loved ones support and comfort as they age, combat illness, or suffer … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, a national emergency was declared with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by the … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the reporting function conferred upon the President by section 1265 of the National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

During National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, we recognize the dignity and courage of the men and women living with Alzheimer's disease. We also honor the devoted family members and caretakers who bring them love and comfort, and we underscore our dedication to finding a cure for this tragic disease. Alzheimer's … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and Syria, not to provide … [read more]

Pursuant to section 102(c) and section 204(a) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation Enhancement Act, I hereby certify that: You are authorized and directed to publish this determination in the Federal Register. … [read more]

On October 24, 1945, in the wake of the devastation left by World War II, the United Nations was formally established. Today, we recognize the many contributions of the United Nations and renew our commitment to its founding principles. Sixty-three years ago, representatives from around the world completed the founding … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, I declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons … [read more]

HASH(0xa6e91f4) Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 634(d) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161), as carried forward by the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2009 (Division A, Public Law 110-329), I hereby determine and certify that it … [read more]

HASH(0xb203378) Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that … [read more]

During National Forest Products Week, we highlight our country's commitment to protect and wisely use America's forests for our Nation's prosperity and well-being. Across our country, citizens rely on forest products to meet their daily needs. Our forests enable us to produce goods such as paper and furniture, provide raw … [read more]

The strength of our Nation is found in the character of our citizens. During National Character Counts Week, we recommit ourselves to instilling strong values in our youth and encourage all Americans to develop good character. Parents and families can teach children the timeless principles of respect, responsibility, honesty, commitment, … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

On General Pulaski Memorial Day, we celebrate General Casimir Pulaski's selfless dedication to the cause of freedom during the American Revolution. In our Nation's struggle for independence, brave individuals such as Casimir Pulaski came to our shores and risked their lives to help bring liberty to a new continent. General … [read more]

Christopher Columbus' bold voyage across the Atlantic changed the world forever. On Columbus Day, we remember this Italian explorer's courage in traveling to the unknown and celebrate his landmark achievements and lasting legacy. History holds remarkable examples of heroism and adventure, and the journey of the navigator from Genoa in … [read more]

Compassion is one of our Nation's defining values, and we must work to ensure that all Americans are able to participate fully in society. The white cane allows many of our citizens who are blind or visually impaired to enjoy increased mobility. On White Cane Safety Day, we celebrate the … [read more]

During National School Lunch Week, we underscore the importance of providing America's children with access to nutritious meals and helping them develop good eating habits through the National School Lunch Program. The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program administered by the Department of Agriculture's Food and … [read more]

HASH(0xa70a8f4) October 6, 2008 HASH(0xa6f3d58) By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 650(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161) (the “Act”), as carried … [read more]

HASH(0xabbd2dc) October 3, 2008 HASH(0xa36ce7c) By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, … [read more]

On Leif Erikson Day, we remember that son of Iceland and grandson of Norway for his journey to North America, and we celebrate the influential role Nordic Americans have played in our society. Leif Erikson was among the world's greatest and most daring explorers. More than 1,000 years ago, he … [read more]

Fire Prevention Week is an opportunity to call attention to the importance of fire safety, especially in the home, and to honor our Nation's firefighters for their heroism. Americans can help reduce home fires by taking simple steps such as regularly inspecting furnaces and fireplaces, keeping space heaters at least … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 80,000 refugees to the United States during Fiscal Year(FY) … [read more]

For generations, German Americans have contributed to our Nation's identity, culture, and prosperity. On German-American Day, we recognize the many Americans with German ancestry who helped make our country great, and we celebrate our strong friendship with Germany. The people of Germany and the United States share important family and … [read more]

Americans have a duty to promote the health and safety of our children. On Child Health Day, we affirm that all children are a precious gift, and we underscore our commitment to helping them realize their full potential. Families are the foundation of our society, and parents play the vital … [read more]

During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we reaffirm our commitment to ensuring that our Nation's promise extends to all our citizens. Millions of Americans live with disabilities, and many other Americans will become disabled at some point in their lives. To integrate people with disabilities more fully into every aspect … [read more]

During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to fighting and preventing this devastating disease. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women, and we must strengthen our support of those who are living with this disease while continuing to work toward a … [read more]

Our Nation has a moral obligation to work to prevent domestic violence and address its brutal and destructive effects. During National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to helping individuals across our country who face such devastating violence. My Administration remains dedicated to eradicating domestic violence and helping … [read more]

1. Section 213A(b) of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (19 U.S.C. 2703a(b)) (the “CBERA”), as amended by section 15402(a)(2) of the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2008 (part 1 of subtitle D of title XV of Public Law 110-246, 122 Stat. 2289) (the “HOPE II Act”), … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq. , it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Subject to the provisions of sections 2 and 3 of … [read more]

1. Section 3A(b)(1) of the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-61) (the “Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act”), as amended by section 6(a) of the Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta’s Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-286) (the “JADE Act”), directs the President to prohibit … [read more]

From our rugged peaks and mountains to our shining seas, our Nation is blessed with remarkable natural treasures. These magnificent landscapes are places where families and friends can create lasting memories and enjoy the outdoors. On National Hunting and Fishing Day, our country honors the many contributions of America's hunters … [read more]

Throughout our history, the men and women of the Armed Forces have put our Nation's security before their own, doing their duty in the face of grave danger. On Gold Star Mother's Day, we pay solemn tribute to the mothers of the patriots lost serving this great Nation. Gold Star … [read more]

I propose to suspend Bolivia's designation as a beneficiary country under the Andean Trade Preference Act, as amended (the “Act”), and as an Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act beneficiary country. By virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, … [read more]

Agriculture has always been a vital part of America's economy and culture, and our farmers and ranchers are among the best stewards of our land. During National Farm Safety and Health Week, we recognize those working in agriculture for their contributions to our Nation's prosperity, security, and health, and we … [read more]

Strong families are essential to the well-being of our Nation. On Family Day, we celebrate the relationship between parents and their children, and we recognize the importance of families spending time together. As a source of hope, guidance, stability, and love for every generation, families both teach and exemplify the … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

On National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we honor the brave and patriotic Americans who were held as prisoners of war, and we remember those who are still missing in action. For their valor and selfless devotion to protect the country they love, our Nation owes them a debt we can never … [read more]

Americans are united by the ideals of equal justice, limited government, and the rule of law. On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day and during Constitution Week, we remember the vision and determination of the Framers to build a free society, and we celebrate the historical document they created to achieve … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession. Subject to the provisions of section 2 of … [read more]

I have considered the Proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of India Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of the Agreement will promote, and … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize the many Americans of Hispanic descent who have made outstanding contributions to our Nation. The rich cultural traditions of the Hispanic-American community have made a remarkable impact on American society. The diverse backgrounds of Hispanic Americans and their dedication to family have become … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 13, 2007 (72 FR 53409), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2008. I hereby determine that … [read more]

Throughout history, America has counted on brave individuals willing to put on the uniform to protect our land and defend our way of life. This week we honor and recognize the many contributions members of our National Guard and Reserve make to our Nation, and we thank the civilian employers … [read more]

September 11, 2001, was etched into America's memory when 19 terrorists attacked us with barbarity unequaled in our history. On Patriot Day, we cherish the memory of the thousands of innocent victims lost, extend our thoughts and prayers to their families, and honor the heroic men and women who risked … [read more]

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are helping to extend lifelines of learning throughout our country. During Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we pay tribute to these distinguished institutions. Our Nation's HBCUs help unlock the great potential within students by providing quality higher education to traditionally underserved communities. By … [read more]

During National Days of Prayer and Remembrance, we pay special tribute to the thousands of innocent victims who died on September 11, 2001. Our Nation honors the brave citizens, service members, police officers, and firefighters who heroically responded in the face of terror. On these important days, we reflect on … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, the Pentagon, and aboard United … [read more]

During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we remember those whose lives have been affected by this deadly disease, and we underscore our commitment to battling ovarian cancer for the sake of women around the world. Each year, thousands of American women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Many will lose their … [read more]

Substance abuse is an unrelenting evil that destroys lives, ruins families, and endangers neighborhoods. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we emphasize our commitment to alcohol and drug addiction prevention. This month is also an opportunity to recognize those who have had the courage to combat and overcome … [read more]

During National Preparedness Month, we underscore the important responsibility Americans have to be ready for emergencies in our homes, businesses, and communities. The Department of Homeland Security's Ready campaign highlights preparedness steps, including having an emergency supply kit, making a family emergency plan, and becoming informed about different types of … [read more]

National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to fighting prostate cancer and to raise awareness about this highly treatable disease. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer found in men, and one in six men will develop it during their lifetime. The … [read more]

The opportunities of America make our land a beacon of hope for people from every corner of the world. America's minority-owned businesses contribute greatly to our economy and the richness of our country. During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we recognize minority entrepreneurs and recommit ourselves to fostering an environment where … [read more]

With vision and determination, American women have helped build our great Nation. On Women's Equality Day, we remember the dedication of women who overcame many obstacles in order to secure the right to vote. The struggle for women's rights is a story of strong women willing to take the lead … [read more]

On August 1, 2007, by Executive Order 13441, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining the sovereignty of Lebanon or its democratic processes or institutions and certain other persons, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I … [read more]

Parents teach their children timeless values to help them make the most of life's opportunities and overcome its challenges. On Parents' Day, we pay tribute to the parents who provide their children with guidance, support, and unconditional love and who help make our country a better place. Mothers and … [read more]

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has helped tear down barriers for millions of people living with disabilities. On the anniversary of this important legislation, our Nation underscores our commitment to ensuring that all individuals have an equal opportunity to realize their full potential. On July 26, 1990, President George … [read more]

The United States is founded upon the belief that every person has unalienable rights and matchless value. Throughout our Nation's history, brave patriots have made great sacrifices to protect this ideal and to advance the cause of freedom around the world. On the 60th anniversary of the integration of the … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August … [read more]

Freedom is the longing of every soul and the birthright of all mankind. During Captive Nations Week, we underscore our commitment to advancing democracy, defending liberty, and protecting human rights around the world. It is in our Nation's interest to help those who are suffering under oppressive regimes defeat the … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of the property of certain persons connected to the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action … [read more]

For 100 years, the committed men and women of the Federal Bureau of Investigation have worked diligently to deliver justice and keep Americans safe. On FBI Day, we recognize the Bureau's many accomplishments and pay tribute to all who have served in its ranks with valor and dedication. The FBI … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)), beneficiary developing countries, except those designated as least-developed beneficiary developing countries or beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries as provided in section 503(c)(2)(D) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(D)), are subject … [read more]

I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), hereby find that the continuation of the exercise … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and consistent with section 6(j)(4)(B) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, Public Law 96-72, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)), … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 574 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public Law 109-102), as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law 110-5), I hereby: … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, President Clinton issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”) blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

On Father's Day, we honor our Nation's fathers for the unconditional love they give to their children and for their selfless dedication to the well-being of their families. Fathers play a unique and irreplaceable part in the lives of their children and pass along values that help children grow into … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary, in order to protect the national security interests of … [read more]

The American flag has been our national symbol for 231 years, and it remains a beacon of freedom wherever it is flown. Since the Second Continental Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes as our flag in 1777, it has stood for freedom, justice, and the resolve of our Nation. When … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

Oceans have provided an important part of our heritage, economy, and recreation, and they are a vital resource for our country and the world. During National Oceans Month, we reaffirm our commitment to protect and wisely use these precious waters and the habitat beneath them. We have a solemn responsibility … [read more]

On Italian Independence Day, we recognize our friendship with the nation of Italy, and we celebrate the generations of Italian Americans who have made significant contributions to our national character. June 2, 1946, marks the birth of the Italian Republic, the long-awaited triumph of liberty and democracy in an ancient … [read more]

From the Appalachian Mountains to the Grand Canyon, America is blessed with places of natural beauty where our citizens can discover the full splendor of this great Nation. During Great Outdoors Month, our Nation celebrates the grandeur of our open spaces, strengthens our commitment to preserving this heritage, and reaffirms … [read more]

America's diverse musical heritage exemplifies the creativity and optimism of our Nation. During Black Music Month, we celebrate the extraordinary talents and creativity of African-American singers, musicians, and composers whose achievements have enriched our culture and enhanced our lives. For generations, African-American artists have created music that communicates across racial … [read more]

America has a duty to provide its children with the support and skills they need to become the next generation of responsible leaders. On National Child's Day, we underscore the importance of fostering the love, encouragement, and protection that empowers our children to become happy and successful adults. Children are … [read more]

For many Americans, owning a home represents freedom, independence, and the American dream. During National Homeownership Month, we highlight the benefits of owning a home and encourage our fellow citizens to be responsible homeowners. My Administration is committed to helping Americans achieve their dreams of homeownership. We have worked to … [read more]

Caribbean-American Heritage Month is an opportunity to show our appreciation for the many ways Caribbean Americans have contributed to our country. Caribbean Americans have helped to shape our national fabric with their vibrant traditions and their unique history. They have brightened our lives with the spirit and vitality of their … [read more]

National Hurricane Preparedness Week highlights the vital importance of being prepared when natural disasters strike. Tropical storms can cause destruction over entire regions and claim the lives of many of our citizens. We can help reduce vulnerability in our communities by encouraging all citizens to be prepared and to work … [read more]

On Memorial Day, we honor the heroes who have laid down their lives in the cause of freedom, resolve that they will forever be remembered by a grateful Nation, and pray that our country may always prove worthy of the sacrifices they have made. Throughout our Nation's history, our course … [read more]

On National Maritime Day, America honors our highly skilled mariners who sail the high seas, support those on the front lines of the war on terror, and promote commerce around the world. Since 1775, the United States Merchant Marine has served our country, helping America become a great maritime power. … [read more]

Freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of worship are among the liberties that Americans cherish. Our Nation fully supports the brave people who work to secure these liberties in the countries where they are denied. And on this Day of Solidarity with the Cuban People, we focus our … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, I declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (IEEPA). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

Free and fair trade helps secure a future of freedom and promise. During World Trade Week, we recognize the positive effects of opening markets around the world. Open markets play an integral role in America's economic progress, creating better-paying jobs, expanding consumer choices, and providing increased opportunities for American workers … [read more]

Our Nation's beautiful waterways provide opportunities for recreational activities for millions of Americans. During National Safe Boating Week, we raise awareness of the importance of practicing and promoting safe boating. Recreational boating is one of America's most popular pastimes, and it is important for every boater to take proper safety … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has engaged in large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September … [read more]

America's transportation system strengthens our national security and keeps our country moving. On National Defense Transportation Day and during National Transportation Week, we thank the men and women of the transportation industry for their efforts to ensure that our Nation's infrastructure operates effectively and efficiently. Innovation, investment, and imagination have … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of interested agencies. I have determined that the performance of … [read more]

Across our Nation, law enforcement officers carry the great responsibility of protecting their fellow citizens. On Peace Officers' Memorial Day and during Police Week, we honor these brave public servants who fight crime, violence, and terrorism, and we pay homage to the heroes who have fallen in the line of … [read more]

On Mother's Day, we honor the grace, wisdom, and strength of our mothers, and we celebrate the special bonds shared between mothers and their children. Mothers work tirelessly to help their children build healthy and successful lives. Through their positive examples and countless acts of kindness, mothers teach the values … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to my authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-175), I issued Executive Order 13338, in which I declared a national emergency with respect to the actions of … [read more]

Military spouses embody the courage, nobility of duty, and love of country that inspire every American. On Military Spouse Day, we pay tribute to the husbands and wives who support their spouses in America's Armed Forces during times of war and peace. The legacy of military spouses began when colonial … [read more]

Education is the cornerstone of a hopeful tomorrow. During National Charter Schools Week, we highlight the contributions of charter schools to ensuring that our Nation's future leaders have the skills and knowledge necessary for a lifetime of achievement. - Charter schools are educational alternatives that empower families with additional choices … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under subsection 1225(a) of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

The right of ordinary men and women to determine their own future, protected by the rule of law, lies at the heart of America's founding principles. As our country celebrates the 50th anniversary of Law Day, we renew our commitment to the ideals on which this great Nation was established … [read more]

Jewish American Heritage Month is an opportunity to celebrate the history, culture, and faith of Jewish Americans and their contributions to our Nation. The story of the Jewish people in America is the story of America itself. When the first Jewish settlers arrived on our shores hundreds of years ago, … [read more]

Americans who trace their ancestry to Asia and the Pacific Islands have contributed much to our Nation. During Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month, we highlight their importance to our great Nation. Asian/Pacific Americans have made our country better with their talents and hard work. Their values and commitment to family and … [read more]

Health and fitness are personal responsibilities and important national goals for our citizens. During National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, we highlight the benefits of exercise and the value of participating in sports. It is important for all Americans to participate in activities that help maintain a healthy lifestyle. Outdoor … [read more]

On Malaria Awareness Day, our Nation recognizes all who suffer from this devastating disease, and we remember the lives lost to an illness that is entirely preventable and treatable. Today, we renew our commitment to lead the world toward the urgent goal and noble mission of turning the tide against … [read more]

During Older Americans Month, we recognize the many ways older citizens have enriched our Nation through their character, wisdom, and love. Our country remains strong because of the foundation our elders have helped lay. This year's Older Americans Month theme, “Working Together for Strong, Healthy, and Supportive Communities,” highlights the … [read more]

Through countless acts of kindness, volunteers across America are changing our Nation for the better. During National Volunteer Week, we recognize those who take the time to help their fellow citizens realize the full potential of America. Through volunteer work, Americans can demonstrate the kindness and generosity that make our … [read more]

Americans believe that every man, woman, and child has unalienable rights, dignity, and matchless value. Advancing these ideals was the honorable vision of our Founders and the mission that helped shape this great country. On Loyalty Day, we celebrate the legacy of freedom and the shared ideals that bind us … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 634(d) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Div. J, Public Law 110-161), I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions … [read more]

America trusts in the abiding power of prayer and asks for the wisdom to discern God's will in times of joy and of trial. As we observe this National Day of Prayer, we recognize our dependence on the Almighty, we thank Him for the many blessings He has bestowed upon … [read more]

In communities across America, small business owners are working hard to turn their dreams into enterprises. Small Business Week is a time to celebrate the many achievements of small business owners, entrepreneurs, and employees, who contribute to the vitality and prosperity of our Nation and create new job opportunities for … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200) (AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA … [read more]

A hopeful society helps ensure that its citizens develop the character, knowledge, and skills they need to succeed. On Education and Sharing Day, we underscore our dedication to encouraging our Nation's youth to build a solid foundation for a lifetime of accomplishment. Education and Sharing Day pays tribute to the … [read more]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, “There is nothing so American as our National Parks.” During National Park Week, we underscore our commitment to conserving these magnificent places and recognize the many employees and volunteers who give their time and energy to keep them beautiful for all Americans to enjoy. … [read more]

During National Crime Victims' Rights Week we highlight our dedication to protecting and strengthening the rights of crime victims and their families. My Administration is committed to providing services and resources for victims of crime so that they can find justice, hope, and healing in their lives. To assist victims … [read more]

On Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, we underscore the importance of a peaceful, democratic, and prosperous Western Hemisphere where our common values continue to strengthen friendships, advance freedom, and encourage fair trade. The love of liberty is deeply rooted in our hemisphere. In the earliest days of … [read more]

For 25 years, Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) has given school children across America an opportunity to gain the skills they need to avoid involvement in drugs, gangs, and violence. On National D.A.R.E. Day, we recognize those individuals who teach America's children how to resist peer pressure and live productive, … [read more]

America is blessed to have brave men and women willing to step forward to defend our freedoms and keep us safe. The members of the United States Armed Forces have proudly held fast against determined and ruthless enemies, protected our citizens from harm, and freed millions from oppression. On National … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1006(e) of the America COMPETES Act (Public Law 110-69) (the “Act”), I hereby designate the Committee on Technology of the National Science and Technology … [read more]

Americans of Scottish descent have made enduring contributions to our Nation with their hard work, faith, and values. On National Tartan Day, we celebrate the spirit and character of Scottish Americans and recognize their many contributions to our culture and our way of life. Scotland and the United States have … [read more]

During Cancer Control Month, we honor cancer victims and survivors, raise awareness of the impact cancer has on our citizens, and underscore our commitment to battling this deadly disease. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States, and we remain committed to making the medical advances necessary … [read more]

Children are the hope and promise of our Nation, and our society has a special duty to ensure young Americans get the care and attention they need to succeed in life. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we underscore our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect so that all … [read more]

During National Fair Housing Month, our Nation commemorates the 40th anniversary of the Fair Housing Act and reaffirms our dedication to maintaining equal access to housing for every American. On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Fair Housing Act. This important legislation was one of a series … [read more]

Every human life has matchless value, and during National Donate Life Month, we reaffirm our commitment to raising awareness about the importance of organ donation. We also express our appreciation to those who have donated organs, tissue, and marrow. Thousands of Americans are currently on the waiting list for an … [read more]

1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to the President such modifications … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 1(b) of Public Law 107-57, as amended, I hereby determine and certify, with respect to Pakistan, that a waiver of section 608 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs … [read more]

Pursuant to section 1106(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)) (the “Act”), I determine that state trading enterprises account for a significant share of Ukraine's exports and goods that compete with imports into Ukraine. I further determine that such state trading enterprises unduly burden … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 1821(c) of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission … [read more]

On Greek Independence Day, we recognize the important contributions Greek Americans have made to our national character, celebrate the deep friendship between our two countries, and honor the anniversary of the Greek call for independence. The United States and Greece share a close relationship based on our common belief in … [read more]

Since 1962, National Poison Prevention Week has helped to raise awareness about the dangers of potentially poisonous medicines and household chemicals. During this week, we underscore our commitment to protect our fellow citizens from accidental poisonings and to educate families about the preventive steps that can be taken to ensure … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

During Women's History Month, we celebrate the courage, foresight, and resolve of women who have strengthened our democracy. America has been transformed by strong women whose contributions shaped the history of our country. Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic, and she inspired generations of … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 650(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that it is important … [read more]

Since the earliest days of our Republic, Irish Americans have enriched our culture with their faith, values, and hard work. During the month of March, we celebrate the contributions of Americans who trace their ancestry back to Ireland's shores. Many of the sons and daughters of Erin came to America … [read more]

As we face new challenges in the 21st century, we must work to ensure that Americans are kept safe in the marketplace. During National Consumer Protection Week, as my Administration works with Congress to improve our consumer product safety system, we also encourage Americans to make informed financial decisions and … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, I declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to … [read more]

Early diagnosis and proper treatment of eye disease can help preserve the gift of sight. During Save Your Vision Week, we encourage Americans to receive routine vision screenings and to understand the importance of keeping their eyes healthy and safe. Today, millions of Americans live with some form of eye … [read more]

In 1881, Clara Barton established the American Red Cross, and for years afterward, she led that organization in its noble cause to provide healing, comfort, and hope to those in need. Today, her legacy lives on through the millions of individuals who have answered the timeless call to serve others. … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228)(the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to be transmitted to the Congress pursuant to section 603 of that Act regarding noncompliance by the Palestine … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228)(the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to be transmitted to the Congress pursuant to section 603 of that Act regarding noncompliance by the Palestine … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, you are directed to perform the function of the President as described under section 802 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons contributing to the conflict in Cote d'Ivoire, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women in the United States. As we observe American Heart Month, we renew our commitment to raising awareness of the serious impact of cardiovascular disease, and we encourage all citizens to take steps to help prevent it. - By … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and section 1083(d) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (the “Act”), I hereby determine that: • All provisions of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

I have considered the proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the United States of America and the Republic of Turkey Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed at Ankara on July 26, 2000, along with the views, recommendations, and statements of interested agencies. I approve the proposed Agreement and have determined … [read more]

During National African American History Month, we honor the achievements and celebrate the rich heritage of African Americans. Throughout our Nation's history, African Americans from all walks of life have offered their talents to the betterment of American society. Scholars such as Frederick Douglass and W.E.B. DuBois were early leaders … [read more]

People across this great Nation have heard the universal call to love a neighbor and are using their time and talents to make a difference in the lives of others. On the sixth anniversary of the USA Freedom Corps, we celebrate the spirit of service in America and honor the … [read more]

On National Sanctity of Human Life Day, we recognize that each life has inherent dignity and matchless value, and we reaffirm our steadfast determination to defend the weakest and most vulnerable members of our society. America was founded on the belief that all men are created equal and have an … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 10(d)(1) of the United Nations Participation Act of 1945, as amended (22 U.S.C. 287e-2(d)(1)), I hereby determine that transfer to the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) … [read more]

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., changed our Nation forever through his leadership, service, and clarity of vision. On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, we honor the lasting legacy of this great American, remember the ideals for which he fought, and recommit ourselves to ensuring that our country's promise … [read more]

Thomas Jefferson counted the freedom of worship as one of America's greatest blessings. He said it was “a liberty deemed in other countries incompatible with good government, and yet proved by our experience to be its best support.” On Religious Freedom Day, we celebrate the 1786 passage of the Virginia … [read more]

1. Section 1206(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3006(a)) authorizes the President to proclaim modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) based on the recommendations of the U.S. International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) under section 1205 of … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (the “Agreement countries”). The Congress approved the Agreement in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., I hereby: 1. Determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the foreign policy of the … [read more]

Millions of Americans lend their time, talent, and energy to become mentors and make a difference in children's lives. During National Mentoring Month, we honor these caring individuals for their dedication to changing our country one heart and soul at a time. By sharing their knowledge and experiences, mentors serve … [read more]

The cause of discovery and exploration is a desire written in the human heart. On Wright Brothers Day, we remember the achievement of two young brothers on the Outer Banks of North Carolina whose persistence, skill, ingenuity, and daring revolutionized the world. Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first manned, … [read more]

Americans value deeply our ability to speak, assemble, and worship freely. As a Nation, we can help freedom-loving people everywhere build a world in which these rights are honored and respected. During Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, we celebrate the freedoms guaranteed to all … [read more]

On December 7, 1941, our Nation was viciously attacked at Pearl Harbor, America's Pacific Fleet was battered and broken, and more than 2,400 American lives were lost. On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, America honors those brave individuals who made the ultimate sacrifice in defense of our homeland, and we … [read more]

Accidents related to drunk and drugged driving claim the lives of thousands of Americans every year. During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month we seek to raise awareness about the dangers of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs and encourage citizens to drive responsibly. As a Nation, … [read more]

On World AIDS Day, we reaffirm our commitment to fighting and preventing HIV/AIDS in America and around the world. We also remember those who have lost their lives to this terrible disease and those who continue to suffer. HIV/AIDS is a global challenge. In 2003, my Administration launched the President's … [read more]

As families gather together to celebrate Thanksgiving, we underscore the comforting and positive role they play in our society. During National Family Week, we celebrate the contributions of families everywhere. Families strengthen our communities by teaching important values such as compassion and honesty to their children. Families also offer a … [read more]

Our Nation's agricultural industry contributes greatly to the strength of our economy. During National Farm-City Week, we honor the hard work and dedication of America's farmers and ranchers and we highlight the important urban and rural partnerships that help keep our country strong and prosperous. America's farmers and ranchers embody … [read more]

As citizens of this great Nation, we have a responsibility to practice good environmental stewardship. On America Recycles Day, we underscore our commitment to conserving our resources by recycling. Through curbside collections and drop-off facilities, we are turning waste materials—including plastic, glass, aluminum cans, paper, tires, batteries, and building materials—into … [read more]

Americans are a grateful people, ever mindful of the many ways we have been blessed. On Thanksgiving Day, we lift our hearts in gratitude for the freedoms we enjoy, the people we love, and the gifts of our prosperous land. Our country was founded by men and women who realized … [read more]

On World Freedom Day, we commemorate the fall of the Berlin Wall and reaffirm our conviction that freedom is the inalienable right of every man, woman, and child. On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall fell—a triumph of freedom over those who denied hope and opportunity to millions. The collapse … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons “weapons of mass destruction” and the … [read more]

National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month is an opportunity to honor and support those living with Alzheimer's disease. During this month, we also seek to express our gratitude to the family members and caretakers who love and comfort those afflicted, and we renew our commitment to finding a cure to this … [read more]

Diabetes is a debilitating disease that affects millions of Americans of all ages and all walks of life. National Diabetes Month is an opportunity to raise awareness about risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this serious disease. Diabetes is a chronic illness that leaves the body unable to produce or … [read more]

During National Adoption Month, we recognize the adoptive and foster families who have shared their homes and hearts with children in need, and we encourage more Americans to consider adopting young people of all ages. Families who adopt show the generous spirit of our Nation. Every child desires a permanent … [read more]

Throughout our history, America has been protected by patriots who cherished liberty and made great sacrifices to advance the cause of freedom. The brave members of the United States Armed Forces have answered the call to serve our Nation, ready to give all for their country. On Veterans Day, we … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

One of America's greatest values is compassion, and our country is blessed by all those who dedicate themselves to caring for others. During National Hospice Month, we recognize the dedicated professionals and volunteers who provide love and comfort to those who are terminally ill. Across our Nation, hospice physicians, nurses, … [read more]

National American Indian Heritage Month is an opportunity to honor the many contributions of American Indians and Alaska Natives and to recognize the strong and living traditions of the first people to call our land home. American Indians and Alaska Natives continue to shape our Nation by preserving the heritage … [read more]

Each year during National Family Caregivers Month, we celebrate all those who dedicate themselves to caring for others and recognize their efforts to comfort and improve the lives of their loved ones in need. One of our Nation's defining values is compassion, and we must do our best to see … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, Syria, and Venezuela not to provide certain funding for those countries' governments … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006, Public Law 109-102, as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007, Public Law 110-5, and the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2008, Public Law 110-92, I hereby determine … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 582 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public Law 109-102), and that section as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

On October 27, 2006, by Executive Order 13413, I declared a national emergency with respect to the situation in or in relation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons … [read more]

After World War II, representatives from around the globe gathered to begin deliberations on a new international bill of rights. The document adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, stands as a landmark achievement in the history of human liberty. On United … [read more]

The greatness of a nation is measured not by power or wealth but by the character of its people. During National Character Counts Week, we underscore our dedication to promoting values for our young people and encourage all Americans to demonstrate good character. As America's youth strive to become responsible … [read more]

During National Forest Products Week, we celebrate the rich blessings of our Nation's forests, and we recognize the important resources they provide to our communities and our economy. Our Nation's forests supply vital products and create important employment opportunities. Trees provide wood to make homes, furniture, musical instruments, paper for … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”)(8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 80,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2008 is … [read more]

The National School Lunch Program provides millions of lunches to our Nation's children each school day. During National School Lunch Week, we renew our commitment to the health of our children and to ensuring that they receive nutritious meals and develop good eating habits. Since it began in 1946, the … [read more]

Our country upholds the value of every person, and all Americans deserve an opportunity to realize the American dream. Many citizens who are blind or visually impaired use white canes to achieve greater independence and increase mobility and productivity. On White Cane Safety Day, we celebrate the symbolism of the … [read more]

More than two hundred years after the death of General Casimir Pulaski, we honor the life and legacy of a Polish patriot and American Revolutionary War soldier who made the ultimate sacrifice for freedom. - Casimir Pulaski first demonstrated his devotion to the cause of liberty while defending his native … [read more]

During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm our commitment to raising awareness about fire safety and prevention, and we salute our country's firefighters who perform heroic acts to keep their fellow citizens safe. Fires injure or kill thousands of people each year. Americans can help reduce the devastating effects of fires … [read more]

In 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail on a journey that changed the course of history. On Columbus Day, we celebrate this voyage of discovery and honor an Italian explorer who shaped the destiny of the New World. Christopher Columbus' bold journey across the Atlantic opened new frontiers of exploration and … [read more]

On Leif Erikson Day, we commemorate the enduring legacy of a brave explorer and honor the significant contributions of Nordic Americans who continue to enrich our culture and our way of life. Leif Erikson, a son of Iceland and grandson of Norway, led a determined crew across the Atlantic more … [read more]

Generations of German Americans have helped shape our national culture and advance our legacy of freedom. On German-American Day, we recognize the many contributions that Americans of German descent have made to our vibrant country. German immigrants, in search of a brighter future, were among the first pioneers to settle … [read more]

Our Nation is committed to the health and well-being of our youth. On Child Health Day, we reaffirm our commitment to helping children develop good nutrition habits and active lifestyles, so that they can grow into healthy and productive adults. Children today face many risks, such as alcohol and drug … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 1314(c)(2) of the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007 (Public Law 110-28 ) (the “Act”), I hereby waive the requirements of section … [read more]

Families are indispensable to a stable society, and they should be a place of support to instill responsibility and values in the next generation. When a family member is abused, it can have long-term damaging effects on the victim that leave a mark on family, friends, and the community at … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 610(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary for the purposes of the Act that $25 million in FY07 funds available for assistance for Eastern Europe and the Baltic States … [read more]

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American women. During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we renew our commitment to fighting this disease, raising awareness, and supporting those affected by breast cancer. Research has shown that several factors may increase the risk of developing breast cancer, … [read more]

National Disability Employment Awareness Month is an opportunity to recognize the contributions and accomplishments of Americans with disabilities and to underscore our Nation's commitment to advancing employment opportunities for all our citizens. Americans with disabilities strengthen our country's workforce, and their achievements help keep our Nation the world's economic leader. … [read more]

1. On December 17, 1992, the Governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182) (the “NAFTA Implementation … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under sections 2041(d)(3), 2042(c)(1), 2042(d), and 2043(c)(1) of … [read more]

America has been blessed by the brave men and women of our Armed Forces who have answered the call to defend our country and protect liberty around the world. On National POW/MIA Recognition Day, we honor a special group of patriots: those who have been prisoners of war and those … [read more]

Families are the cornerstone of our Nation. On Family Day, we underscore our dedication to strengthening America's families and recognize the importance that the bonds between parents and children hold for the future of our country. Parents and family members are the first and most important influence in a child's … [read more]

The gift of liberty is secured by heroes who have answered the call to serve when America needed them most. On Gold Star Mother's Day, we honor the mothers of the service men and women who have given their lives in the defense of our great Nation. America's Gold Star … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 13, 2006 (71 Fed. Reg . 54399), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2007. I hereby … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

Hispanic Americans have strengthened our country and contributed to the spirit of America. National Hispanic Heritage Month is an opportunity to honor these contributions and celebrate the rich cultural traditions of our Hispanic-American community. Hispanic Americans have helped establish America as a place of freedom and opportunity, and their contributions … [read more]

America's farmers and ranchers are good stewards of our land, providing a healthy, safe, and abundant food supply for our country and for people around the world. During National Farm Safety and Health Week, we pay tribute to our farmers and ranchers and their families for their contributions to our … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002, as amended (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Montenegro has entered into an agreement with the United States pursuant … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, the Pentagon, and aboard United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the reporting functions of the President under subsections (h) and (j) of section 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 … [read more]

During this year's National Days of Prayer and Remembrance, we honor the thousands of victims who died in the brutal and ruthless attacks in New York City, Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. Our Nation remembers with gratitude the firefighters, police officers, first responders, and ordinary citizens … [read more]

September 11, 2001, was a defining moment in American history. On that terrible day, our Nation saw the face of evil as 19 men barbarously attacked us and wantonly murdered people of many races, nationalities, and creeds. On Patriot Day, we remember the innocent victims, and we pay tribute to … [read more]

Education is a fundamental part of achieving the American dream, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) help ensure that every student has the opportunity to pursue a quality education. During Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we underscore our commitment to these distinguished institutions in their efforts to provide … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the function of the President under the heading “Economic Support Fund” in the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public … [read more]

During National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, we recognize the vital contributions of the brave men and women who serve our great Nation, and we pay tribute to the employers who support them. The courageous men and women of the National Guard and Reserve are fighting a … [read more]

National Preparedness Month is an opportunity to raise awareness about the importance of emergency preparedness and to encourage all Americans to better prepare their homes and communities for emergencies. Protecting America's homeland and citizens is the shared responsibility of the entire Nation. Individuals can prepare themselves and their families for … [read more]

Minority Enterprise Development Week is a chance to highlight the accomplishments of minority business owners and underscore our commitment to strengthening minority businesses and helping these entrepreneurs succeed. Minority business owners have made our Nation stronger. Our thriving and resilient economy is the envy of the world, and minority business … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month provides an opportunity to underscore our commitment to stopping alcohol and drug abuse before it starts and to helping citizens in need overcome addiction and rebuild their lives. Alcohol and drug addiction can ruin lives and devastate families. We must continue working toward … [read more]

On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day and during Constitution Week, we celebrate the anniversary of our Nation's Constitution and honor the Framers who created the landmark document that continues to guide our Nation. In the summer of 1787, delegates convened in Philadelphia to create “a more perfect Union” and craft … [read more]

During National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to winning the battle against prostate cancer and raising awareness of the risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this disease. All men can develop prostate cancer, yet studies have shown that risk increases with age. Although the exact cause of … [read more]

National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to fighting ovarian cancer and to finding a cure for this deadly disease. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in our country, and the risk of developing it increases with age … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August … [read more]

On Women's Equality Day, we commemorate the adoption of the 19th Amendment to our Constitution and the strong leadership of extraordinary women who have made America a more perfect Union by advancing women's suffrage. At the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, a group of visionaries gathered to proclaim the ideas … [read more]

On the anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), we celebrate our progress towards an America where individuals with disabilities are recognized for their talents and contributions to our society. We also underscore our commitment to extend the full liberties and freedoms of our great country to all Americans. … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures, including the blocking of property of certain persons associated with the former Liberian regime of Charles Taylor, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 1314(c)(2) of the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007 (Public Law 110-28)(the “Act”), I hereby waive the requirements of section 1314(c)(1) for … [read more]

Pursuant to section 579 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (Public Law 109-102)(the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is in furtherance of the purposes of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, that $5 million in Economic Support Funds appropriated under title II of … [read more]

As a mark of respect for the memory of Lady Bird Johnson, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, that on the day of her interment, the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff … [read more]

On Parents' Day, America honors our mothers and fathers for their extraordinary devotion and for the great sacrifices they make to provide a hopeful and promising future for their children. The guidance and unconditional love of parents help create a nurturing environment so children can grow and reach their full … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary for the purposes of that Act that $1.8 million in prior year Independent … [read more]

Liberty is the path to lasting peace and the unalienable right of every man, woman, and child. During Captive Nations Week, we underscore our commitment to protecting human rights, advancing democracy and freedom, and ending tyranny across the globe. Expanding freedom is a moral imperative, and today more people are … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 534(j) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (the “Act”)(Public Law 109-102), as carried forward under the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007 (Public Law 110-5)(the “Continuing Resolution”), … [read more]

Pursuant to section 402(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-618), as amended (the “Act”), I determine that a waiver by Executive Order of the application of subsections (a) and (b) of section 402 of the Act with respect to Turkmenistan will substantially promote the objectives of section … [read more]

WHEREAS Lewis Libby was convicted in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in the case United States v. Libby , Crim. No. 05-394 (RBW), for which a sentence of 30 months' imprisonment, 2 years' supervised release, a fine of $250,000, and a special assessment of $400 … [read more]

In order to foster democratic institutions in Lebanon, to help the Lebanese people preserve their sovereignty and achieve their aspirations for democracy and regional stability, and to end the sponsorship of terrorism in Lebanon, it is in the interest of the United States to restrict the international travel, and to … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”)(19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)), beneficiary developing countries, except those designated as least-developed beneficiary developing countries or beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries as provided in section 503(c)(2)(D) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(D)), are subject to competitive … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the reporting function conferred upon the President by section 9003(d)(3) of title 5, United States Code. You are … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of Defense the functions of the President under section 1035 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 550(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (FOAA)(Public Law 109-102), as amended by the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the “order”), blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

On June 16, 2006, by Executive Order 13405, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action in response to the unusual … [read more]

On Father's Day, we reflect on the many ways that fathers contribute to the lives of their children with spoken words and unspoken kindness. Fathers are one of the most important influences in the lives of children, and their unconditional love is an indispensable anchor of certainty and strength. By … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under sections 1211(b), 1213(b), and 1226(c) of the … [read more]

By virtue of the authority vested in me by 49 U.S.C. 40106(b) and for the purpose of promoting peace and security in Lebanon, I hereby determine that the prohibition of transportation services to Lebanon established by Presidential Determination 85-14 of July 1, 1985, as amended by Presidential Determination 92-41 of … [read more]

The American Flag represents freedom and has been an enduring symbol of our Nation's ideals since the earliest days of our Nation. Wherever it flies, we are reminded of America's unity and in the great cause of liberty and justice for all. Two hundred and thirty years ago, the Second … [read more]

Owning a home is part of the American dream, and National Homeownership Month is an opportunity to encourage our citizens to explore the benefits of owning a home. Owning a home provides a source of security and stability for many of our citizens. My Administration is committed to fostering an … [read more]

Today's children are tomorrow's leaders, and our Nation has a responsibility to ensure that they develop the character and skills needed to succeed. On National Child's Day, we underscore our commitment to our children and pledge to provide them with the care, protection, and education they deserve. Children are great … [read more]

During June, we recognize Caribbean Americans and celebrate the many ways they contribute to our Nation. Generations of Caribbean Americans have helped shape the spirit and character of our country. These individuals are justly proud of their Caribbean roots, and they enrich the American experience by sharing their traditions, history, … [read more]

Our Nation benefits from the oceans that contain precious natural treasures, carry much of our trade, and provide us with food and recreational opportunities. During National Oceans Month, we celebrate these benefits, and we underscore our commitment to being good stewards of the oceans. Since the release of my Ocean … [read more]

During Black Music Month, we recognize the outstanding contributions that African-American singers, composers, and musicians have made to our country, and we express our appreciation for the extraordinary music that has enriched our Nation. The music of African-American musicians has helped shape our national character and become an important part … [read more]

During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the rich blessings of our Nation's natural beauty, and we renew our commitment to protecting our environment so that we can leave our children and grandchildren a healthy and flourishing land. This month is also an opportunity to pay tribute to those whose hard … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including sections 2 and 4(a)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the “Act”), as amended (22 U.S.C. 2601 and 2603) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code: (1) I … [read more]

Each year, millions of Americans living in coastal areas are faced with the hazards of hurricanes. As hurricane season approaches, National Hurricane Preparedness Week provides an opportunity to raise awareness of steps that can be taken to help protect our citizens, and their communities and property. Hurricanes can be devastatingly … [read more]

World trade is essential to promoting global economic growth, development, freedom, and prosperity. During World Trade Week, we underscore our commitment to free and fair trade and acknowledge the benefits of open markets for our citizens and for people around the globe. Trade creates wealth and opportunities, and United States … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the “Act”), and section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby determine it necessary for the purposes … [read more]

America has a proud maritime history, and the United States Merchant Marine has played a vital role in helping meet our country's economic and national security needs. On National Maritime Day, we honor merchant mariners for their dedication to promoting commerce and protecting our freedom. During times of peace, the … [read more]

On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, I declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (IEEPA). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

On Memorial Day, Americans pause with solemn gratitude and deep respect for all our fallen service men and women who have given their lives for our country and our freedom. Through the generations, the courageous and selfless patriots of our Armed Forces have secured our liberty and borne its great … [read more]

On May 20, 1997, the President issued Executive Order 13047, certifying to the Congress under section 570(b) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104-208), that the Government of Burma has committed large-scale repression of the democratic opposition in Burma after September 30, … [read more]

Millions of Americans take advantage of and participate in the special beauty of our Nation's waterways. During National Safe Boating Week, we renew our commitment to raising awareness about the importance of making safe and sound boating decisions on the water. America's rivers, lakes, and oceans are wonderful places for … [read more]

In every American community, committed law enforcement officers watch over our neighborhoods and work to make our Nation a safer, more peaceful place. As we observe Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, we honor the men and women who serve the cause of justice, and we pay tribute to … [read more]

Our Nation's transportation infrastructure is vital to our security, competitiveness, and prosperity and is critical to the everyday lives of our citizens. On National Defense Transportation Day and during National Transportation Week, we salute those in the transportation industry who work to help keep our Nation safe and moving. America … [read more]

America's military spouses inspire our Nation with their sense of duty and deep devotion to our country. On Military Spouse Day, we honor the husbands and wives of those who wear the uniform of the Armed Forces of the United States. The husbands and wives of our service members have … [read more]

On May 11, 2004, pursuant to my authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (Public Law 108-175), I issued Executive Order 13338 in which I declared a national emergency authorizing the blocking of property of … [read more]

Motherhood is one of the most cherished and valued roles in our society. On Mother's Day, we pay tribute to these dedicated women who give unconditional love and guidance to their children. A mother's work requires extraordinary patience and compassion, and her example influences the formation of young lives. President … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 40(g) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby: • Determine and certify that the transaction, encompassing U.S. Government-funded transfers and commercial … [read more]

The faith and hard work of Jewish Americans have played an integral role in shaping the cultural fabric of America. During Jewish American Heritage Month, we celebrate the vital contributions of Jewish Americans to our Nation. Throughout our history, Jewish Americans have contributed to the strength of our country and … [read more]

National Physical Fitness and Sports Month is an opportunity to educate Americans about the importance of healthy habits and regular physical activity. During this annual observance, we renew our commitment to helping keep our citizens physically active, and we recognize the value of incorporating exercise and sports into our daily … [read more]

America was founded by patriots who risked their lives to bring freedom to our Nation. Today, our citizens are grateful for our Founding Fathers and confident in the principles that lead us forward. On Loyalty Day, we celebrate the blessings of freedom and remember our responsibility to continue our legacy … [read more]

During Older Americans Month, we pay tribute to our senior citizens for the many ways they strengthen our Nation. Our country is blessed by their compassionate acts, the wisdom of their experiences, and the patriotism they demonstrate. This year's theme, “Older Americans: Making Choices for a Healthier Future,” underscores the … [read more]

Our Nation is built upon the rule of law and guided by our founding promise of freedom, equality, and justice for all. Law Day is an opportunity to celebrate the Constitution and the laws that protect our rights and liberties and to recognize our responsibility as citizens to uphold the … [read more]

During Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month, we honor the many contributions citizens of Asian and Pacific Island ancestry have made to our great land. The millions of Americans who trace their origins to nations in the Asian/Pacific region have enriched America. The entrepreneurship and innovation of Asian/Pacific Americans have strengthened our … [read more]

Across our country, charter schools are providing quality education for America's students. During National Charter Schools Week, we recognize the important contributions of charter schools and underscore our commitment to ensuring that all children receive the education they need to lead lives of purpose and success. Charter schools are public … [read more]

Americans are fortunate to live in a land that eliminated malaria decades ago. Today, our country helps fight this disease in Africa, because we believe in the timeless truth: To whom much is given, much is required. On Malaria Awareness Day, we renew our commitment to helping combat malaria in … [read more]

Americans take great pride in our country's natural beauty, and our Nation is blessed to have a park system of more than 80 million acres that belongs to us all. During National Park Week, we underscore our dedication to conserving these national treasures, and we pay tribute to the dedicated … [read more]

National Crime Victims' Rights Week is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to protecting the rights of crime victims and to recognize those who bring hope and healing to these individuals and their families. During this week, we especially remember and mourn the victims of the senseless acts of violence … [read more]

A prayerful spirit has always been an important part of our national character, and it is a force that has guided the American people, given us strength, and sustained us in moments of joy and in times of challenge. On this National Day of Prayer, we acknowledge God's grace and … [read more]

During Small Business Week, we honor small business owners and workers for their important role in ensuring that America remains the economic leader of the world. Every day, our Nation's small businesses help enhance the lives of our citizens and lead the way in an economy distinguished by low unemployment, … [read more]

On Dutch-American Friendship Day, we celebrate our longtime friendship with the Kingdom of the Netherlands and honor the many Dutch Americans who have made significant contributions to our country. Our close partnership with the Netherlands dates back to the founding of our Nation, and it remains among our oldest continuous … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006, Public Law 109-102, as carried forward by the Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2007, Public Law 110-5, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national … [read more]

Our Nation grieves with those who have lost loved ones at Virginia Tech. We hold the victims in our hearts. We lift them up in our prayers, and we ask a loving God to comfort those who are suffering. As a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless … [read more]

On Thomas Jefferson Day, we commemorate the birthday of a monumental figure whose place in our Nation's history will always be cherished. Thomas Jefferson was a scholar, statesman, author, architect, and patriot, and today we celebrate his many accomplishments and lasting legacy. Thomas Jefferson continues to capture our imagination because … [read more]

Each year, Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) teaches millions of children across our country how to resist drugs and violence. On National D.A.R.E. Day, we honor the individuals who help our Nation's young people avoid the dangers of substance abuse and become productive citizens. For more than two decades, D.A.R.E. … [read more]

During National Volunteer Week, we celebrate the spirit of service in America and honor those who demonstrate the great character of our country through acts of kindness, generosity, and compassion. Throughout the history of America, volunteers and civic organizations have helped extend the blessings of liberty and opportunity to our … [read more]

Four centuries ago, after a long journey, a small group of colonists stepped boldly onto the shores of the New World and established the first permanent English settlement in North America. During the 400th anniversary of Jamestown, America honors the early pioneers whose epic of endurance and courage started the … [read more]

The men and women of the United States Armed Forces have made great sacrifices to defend our Nation. They have triumphed over brutal enemies, liberated continents, and answered the prayers of millions around the globe. On National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, we honor the brave individuals who put … [read more]

Each year on Pan American Day and during Pan American Week, we underscore our commitment to supporting the citizens in the Pan American community, strengthening democracy in the Western Hemisphere, and advancing the cause of peace worldwide. In 1890, the International Union of American Republics was established to promote cooperation … [read more]

Cancer Control Month is an opportunity to educate all Americans about cancer, to raise awareness about treatments, and to renew our commitment to fighting this deadly disease. Through developments in medical science, we continue to make advances in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Yet millions of our citizens continue … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a free trade agreement with the Republic of Korea. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a free trade agreement with the Republic of Panama. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register . … [read more]

All Americans share a responsibility to protect our Nation's children. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to prevent child abuse and neglect and to work to enable our children to realize their full potential. Childhood is a formative time, and abuse can have devastating long-term effects … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

Donating organs, marrow, and tissue is a kind and compassionate act that can protect and enhance the precious gift of life. During National Donate Life Month, we recognize the generosity of donors and raise awareness of the importance of donating. In recent years, there has been great progress in this … [read more]

A future of hope and opportunity in America requires that all our children develop the knowledge and character they need in life. On Education and Sharing Day, we recognize our responsibility to ensure that our young people have the foundation necessary to lead lives rich in purpose and fulfillment. Education … [read more]

The United States and Greece share a long friendship built on common values and an abiding love for freedom. On Greek Independence Day, we underscore the warm ties between our countries, recognize the Greek Americans who enrich our society, and commemorate the anniversary of modern Greece. The ancient Greeks entrusted … [read more]

1. Section 5002 of the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2006 (Division D, Title V of Public Law 109-432)(the “HOPE Act”), which amends the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (Title II of the Trade and Development Act of 2000, Public Law 106-200)(CBERA), provides that preferential tariff treatment … [read more]

In the 45 years since the first National Poison Prevention Week was proclaimed by President John F. Kennedy, many lives have been saved from unintentional poisoning through awareness efforts across our country. This week, we reaffirm our commitment to the safety of our fellow citizens and to guarding against accidental … [read more]

On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Pursuant to section 490(b)(1)(A) of the Foreign Assistance Act, I hereby determine that the top five exporting and importing countries of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine in 2005 (Belgium, China, Germany, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom) have cooperated fully with the United States … [read more]

WHEREAS Proclamation 8031 of June 15, 2006, established the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument; NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2 of the Act … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (the “Agreement countries”). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, the functions of the President under section 821 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (22 U.S.C. 6301) are assigned … [read more]

Throughout our history, the vision and determination of women have strengthened and transformed America. As we celebrate Women's History Month, we recognize the vital contributions women have made to our country. The strong leadership of extraordinary women has altered our Nation's history. Sojourner Truth, Alice Stone Blackwell, and Julia Ward … [read more]

On March 6, 2003, by Executive Order 13288, I declared a national emergency and blocked the property of persons undermining democratic processes or institutions in Zimbabwe, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to … [read more]

The American Red Cross demonstrates the power of human compassion and embodies the capacity for kindness and generosity of this great Nation. This month, we honor the men and women of the American Red Cross who exhibit the spirit and character of America by serving others in need. Since its … [read more]

Across our Nation, millions of Americans suffer from eye diseases and vision loss. During Save Your Vision Week, we reinforce the importance of proper eye care and raise awareness about how to protect and prolong healthy vision. By taking simple preventative steps such as wearing sunglasses and using protective goggles … [read more]

The friendship between Ireland and the United States has deep roots, and Irish Americans have played an integral role in making our country a place of hope and opportunity. During Irish-American Heritage Month, we recognize the vital contributions of Irish Americans to our Nation. Since our founding, Irish immigrants have … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002, (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Chad has entered into an agreement with the United States pursuant to Article … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 610 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2360) (the “Act”), I hereby determine it necessary for the purposes of that Act that up to $86.362 million in … [read more]

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to the Congress transmitted pursuant to section 603 of the Act, regarding noncompliance by the Palestine Liberation … [read more]

Two hundred seventy-five years after the birth of George Washington, we honor the life and legacy of a surveyor from Virginia who became Commander of the Continental Army, a major force at the Constitutional Convention, and the first President of the United States of America. Remembered by the Congress … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President under the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345,et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession . During any period when the United … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and section 1019 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109-364) (the “Act”), I hereby assign to the … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345,et seq ., it is hereby ordered that: Section 1. Order of Succession . During any period when the Director … [read more]

During National Consumer Protection Week, citizens are urged to learn more about the risks of fraud and identity theft and take precautions to protect themselves from these crimes. Americans can help prevent fraud and identity theft by becoming informed consumers. The Federal Trade Commission suggests that individuals safeguard personal information … [read more]

On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons contributing to the conflict in Cote d'Ivoire, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under section 556 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year … [read more]

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, claiming hundreds of thousands of lives each year. During American Heart Month, we renew our commitment to fighting cardiovascular disease by increasing public awareness of this deadly disease and understanding of how it can be prevented. Today, millions … [read more]

African Americans have been an integral part of America for generations, and our Nation is stronger because of their contributions. During National African American History Month, we honor the achievements of African Americans and recognize our continued responsibility to strive for equality for all our citizens. With grace and determination, … [read more]

The great strength of our Nation is found in the heroic kindness, courage, and self-sacrifice of the American people. Every day, individuals show the good heart of our country by volunteering to help make someone's life better. Since 2002, the USA Freedom Corps has provided access to volunteer opportunities for … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the functions of the President under sections 6(a), 6(b), and 6(f) of the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of … [read more]

America was founded on the principle that we are all endowed by our Creator with the right to life and that every individual has dignity and worth. National Sanctity of Human Life Day helps foster a culture of life and reinforces our commitment to building a compassionate society that respects … [read more]

On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order 12947, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by grave acts of … [read more]

On Religious Freedom Day, we commemorate the passage of the 1786 Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, authored by Thomas Jefferson, and we celebrate the First Amendment's protection of religious freedom. Across the centuries, people have come to America seeking to worship the Almighty freely. Today, our citizens profess many different … [read more]

On the Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday, Americans honor the memory of a man who stirred the conscience of a Nation. We also recommit ourselves to the dream to which Dr. King devoted his life—an America where the dignity of every person is respected; where people are judged not … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

In accordance with section 102(b) (1) of the Arms Export Control Act and section 129 of the Atomic Energy Act, I hereby determine that North Korea, a non-nuclear-weapon state, detonated a nuclear explosive device on October 9, 2006. The relevant agencies and instrumentalities of the United States Government are hereby … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a) (1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and … [read more]

By virtue of authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, the functions of the President under section 1014(o)(1) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (Public Law … [read more]

1. Section 506A(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”)(19 U.S.C. 2466a(a)(1)), as added by section 111(a) of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (title I of Public Law 106-200)(AGOA), authorizes the President to designate a country listed in section 107 of the AGOA (19 U.S.C. … [read more]

1. During the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (the “Uruguay Round”), a group of major trading countries agreed to reciprocal elimination of tariffs on certain pharmaceuticals and chemical intermediates, and that participants in this agreement would revise periodically the list of products subject to duty-free treatment. On December 13, … [read more]

As a further mark of respect to the memory of Gerald R. Ford, the thirty-eighth President of the United States, NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, in honor … [read more]

1. Section 1205(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (the “1988 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 3005(a)) directs the United States International Trade Commission (the “Commission”) to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to the President such modifications … [read more]

TO THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES: It is my sad duty to announce officially the death of Gerald R. Ford, the thirty-eighth President of the United States, on December 26, 2006. President Ford was a great man who devoted the best years of his life to serving the United … [read more]

1. Vietnam has demonstrated a strong desire to build a friendly and cooperative relationship with the United States and has been found to be in full compliance with the freedom of emigration requirements under title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2431 et seq … [read more]

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to you the function of the President under section 721(k) of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2170(k)), for … [read more]

During National Mentoring Month, we honor the caring individuals across our Nation who are committed to helping the next generation of Americans reach their full potential. Mentors help teach important skills that are necessary for a healthy, successful life and help shape the character of our young people. They instill … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 1303 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (Public Law 108-375) (the “Act”), I hereby certify that waiving the conditions described in section 1305 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106-65), as … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including 49 U.S.C. 44302,et seq ., and 3 U.S.C. 301, I hereby: 1. determine that continuation of U.S.-flag commercial air service is necessary in the interest of air commerce, national security, and the … [read more]

Pursuant to section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $5.215 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund for the purpose of … [read more]

America has a rich history of exploration and discovery, marked by scientific and technological achievements that have transformed the world. On Wright Brothers Day, we remember two aviation pioneers from Ohio whose big dreams and extraordinary accomplishments helped change the course of human history. On December 17, 1903, Orville and … [read more]

Peace and justice prevail when people are free to speak, assemble, and worship, when their rights are protected, and when governments are accountable to their citizens. These blessings of freedom are guaranteed for Americans in the Bill of Rights of our Constitution. During Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 574 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (the “Act”), Public Law 109-102, I hereby: • Determine that it is important to the national interests of the … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that Comoros and Saint Kitts and Nevis have each entered into an agreement with … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345et seq ., I hereby order that: Section 1. Order of Succession. During any period when the Attorney General, the … [read more]

Sixty-five years ago, more than 2,400 Americans lost their lives in a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. On National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, we think of those who died on December 7, 1941, and honor all those who sacrificed for our liberty during World War II. On that peaceful Sunday … [read more]

Each year, thousands of Americans lose their lives in accidents involving drunk and drugged driving. During National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month, we continue our efforts to promote awareness of the dangers of impaired driving and encourage fellow citizens to never drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs. … [read more]

HIV/AIDS is a global health crisis and a constant struggle for many of our families, friends, and neighbors. On World AIDS Day, we underscore our commitment to fight the AIDS pandemic with compassion and decisive action. America leads the world in the fight against HIV/AIDS, and through the Emergency Plan … [read more]

Methamphetamine abuse shatters families and threatens our communities. On National Methamphetamine Awareness Day, we underscore the dangers of methamphetamine and reaffirm our collective responsibility to combat all forms of drug abuse. Methamphetamine is a powerfully addictive drug that dramatically affects users' minds and bodies. Chronic use can lead to violent … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 721 of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (section 721), 50 U.S.C. App. 2170, - Section 1. Findings. - I hereby make the following findings: - (1) there … [read more]

Families are indispensable to a stable and free society. They pass along the traditions and principles that help make America compassionate, decent, and hopeful. During National Family Week, we honor our families and recognize their contributions to keeping our country strong. Today's fast-changing world needs the anchor of values and … [read more]

As Americans gather with family and friends to celebrate Thanksgiving Day, we give thanks for the many ways that our Nation and our people have been blessed. The Thanksgiving tradition dates back to the earliest days of our society, celebrated in decisive moments in our history and in quiet times … [read more]

Good stewardship of the environment is a personal responsibility and an important public value, and on America Recycles Day, we highlight the many benefits of recycling. By taking steps to reduce waste and re-use materials, we can save precious natural resources, enhance the beauty of our communities, and add to … [read more]

Throughout our history, America's farmers and ranchers have demonstrated the values of determination, faith, love of family, and patriotism. The contributions of America's farmers and ranchers help keep our economy moving forward, and during National Farm-City Week we underscore the vital partnership between America's rural and urban industries. By providing … [read more]

On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “2002 Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: • Determine that it is … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Brazil, that (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down by the desire of a people to be free. On World Freedom Day, we commemorate this historic event and reflect on liberty's power to change lives and raise societies. After decades of oppression, the fall of the Berlin Wall brought … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 552(c)(2) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, I hereby determine that: (1) as a result of an unforeseen emergency, the provision of assistance under Chapter 6 of Part II … [read more]

Consistent with section 1006(a) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2905(a)) (the “Act”), I determine that state trading enterprises account for a significant share of the exports of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) and goods that compete with imports into Vietnam. I further determine … [read more]

Through the generations, America's men and women in uniform have defeated tyrants, liberated continents, and set a standard of courage and idealism for the entire world. On Veterans Day, our Nation pays tribute to those who have proudly served in our Armed Forces. To protect the Nation they love, our … [read more]

Our country is blessed to have millions of compassionate citizens who bring love and support to family members and friends who are chronically ill, elderly, or disabled. During National Family Caregivers Month, we recognize these kind individuals who give of their hearts, resources, and energy to assist loved ones in … [read more]

During National American Indian Heritage Month, we honor the generations of American Indians and Alaska Natives who have added to the character of our Nation. This month is an opportunity to celebrate their many accomplishments and their rich ancestry and traditions. America is blessed by the character and strength of … [read more]

During National Adoption Month, we encourage the adoption of young people in need, and we honor the adoptive and foster families who have offered children a loving and supportive home. The best of America is reflected in the many citizens who have adopted children as their own. Mothers and fathers … [read more]

Americans demonstrate the great compassion of our country by caring for those in need. During National Hospice Month, we recognize hospice caregivers for their dedication to providing comfort and peace to individuals in their last days and helping build a society that values the life and dignity of every person. … [read more]

National Diabetes Month is an opportunity to raise awareness of risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this serious disease. Diabetes is a chronic illness affecting nearly 21 million Americans of all ages and backgrounds. It can cause blindness, nontraumatic amputations, kidney disease, and increased risk of heart disease and stroke. … [read more]

On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted by … [read more]

During National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, we renew our resolve in the fight against this devastating disease, and we take time to remember the loved ones taken from us by Alzheimer's. We also recognize the patients and family members who are affected by it, and we extend our gratitude to … [read more]

Consistent with section 110 of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (Division A of Public Law 106-386), as amended, (the “Act”), I hereby: • Make the determination provided in section 110(d)(1)(A)(i) of the Act, with respect to Burma, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe, not to provide certain funding for those countries' … [read more]

In accordance with section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (the “Act”) (8 U.S.C. 1157), as amended, and after appropriate consultations with the Congress, I hereby make the following determinations and authorize the following actions: The admission of up to 70,000 refugees to the United States during FY 2007 … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority and conditions contained in section 534(d) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006, Public Law 109-102, I hereby determine and certify that it is important to the national security interests of the United States to waive the provisions of section 1003 … [read more]

On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a national emergency with respect to the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the … [read more]

On October 24, 1945, the United Nations was formed to promote peace and international security, further economic and social development, protect fundamental human dignity, and recognize the equal rights of men and women. On United Nations Day, we recognize the establishment of this important organization and underscore our commitment to … [read more]

On the 50th anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution, we celebrate the Hungarians who defied an empire to demand their liberty, we recognize the friendship between the United States and Hungary, and we reaffirm our shared desire to spread freedom to people around the world. The story of Hungarian democracy represents … [read more]

On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the actions of … [read more]

America's strength is found in the spirit and character of our people. During National Character Counts Week, we renew our commitment to instilling values in our young people and to encouraging all Americans to remember the importance of good character. As the primary teachers and examples of character, parents help … [read more]

During National Forest Products Week, we take time to appreciate the natural splendor of our country's forests and acknowledge the importance of these woodlands to our economic and environmental vitality. It is also an opportunity to renew our commitment to conserving our natural resources and to using them responsibly. Our … [read more]

Our Nation is moving toward remarkable technological advances that will make energy cleaner, more abundant, and more affordable for our citizens. During National Energy Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to a more secure energy future. My Administration is working to improve energy efficiency and conservation, increase our domestic supply … [read more]

Our Nation believes in the promise of all our citizens, and we must work to ensure that the opportunities of America are more accessible to every person. Many Americans who are blind or visually impaired use white canes to enable them to enjoy greater mobility, engage in productive work, and … [read more]

On General Pulaski Memorial Day, we remember Casimir Pulaski, a Polish-born hero of the American Revolution who fought and died for the freedom and independence our country enjoys today. General Casimir Pulaski entered into a campaign against tyranny in Poland in 1768, bravely fighting for the freedom of his native … [read more]

More than five centuries ago, Christopher Columbus boldly set out on a long and challenging journey across the Atlantic that led the way for exploration of the Americas. On Columbus Day, we celebrate the historic voyages of the Italian explorer and honor his life, heritage, and lasting legacy. Columbus' brave … [read more]

For 60 years, the National School Lunch Program has contributed to the health and well-being of America's youth. National School Lunch Week highlights the many achievements of the National School Lunch Program and the importance of helping children develop good nutrition habits. Eating healthy foods and maintaining an active lifestyle … [read more]

Leif Erikson Day honors a great son of Iceland and grandson of Norway who became one of the first Europeans known to reach North America. This day is also an opportunity to celebrate the generations of Nordic Americans who have contributed to our country and strengthened the ties that forever … [read more]

During Fire Prevention Week, we underscore our commitment to advancing fire safety and awareness, and we honor the brave firefighters and volunteers who work to protect our lives, homes, and communities. Thousands of injuries and deaths occur each year as a result of fires, and Americans have a shared responsibility … [read more]

Throughout our history, the spirit and hard work of German Americans have been an important part of the cultural fabric of our Nation. On German-American Day, we celebrate German Americans and their many contributions to the character of our country. Germans were among the first to settle in this great … [read more]

During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we pay tribute to the accomplishments of the men and women with disabilities whose work helps keep America's economy strong, and we underscore our commitment to ensuring equal employment opportunity for all of our citizens. - Our country has made great progress to ensure … [read more]

During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to advancing the fight against breast cancer and bringing hope to those affected by this deadly disease. - Breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer deaths among American women, and both men and women should be aware that … [read more]

America's young people enjoy a future of hope and promise, and we must be committed to supporting them through each opportunity and challenge they face ahead. Each year on Child Health Day, we emphasize the importance of keeping our children safe, encouraging them to practice healthy habits, and educating and … [read more]

Domestic violence has no place in our society, and we have a moral obligation to help prevent it. The terrible tragedies that result from it destroy lives and insult the dignity of women, men, and children. National Domestic Violence Awareness Month is an opportunity to underscore our commitment to bringing … [read more]

Pursuant to section 706(1) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, FY03 (Public Law 107-228) (FRAA), I hereby identify the following countries as major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, … [read more]

Families instill values, shape character, and are the foundation of a hopeful society. On Family Day, we celebrate the rich traditions of family life and emphasize the importance of stable and loving relationships between children and parents. Families are a source of inspiration and strength, and they provide hope and … [read more]

In times of war or crisis, the citizen-soldiers of our National Guard and Reserve are ready and willing to answer the call of duty. During National Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve Week, we express our deep gratitude to these brave men and women and to the employers who … [read more]

Since America's founding, every generation has produced patriots willing to sacrifice for our great Nation. Many of these proud sons and daughters have given everything for our freedom, and America has mourned the loss of every life. On Gold Star Mother's Day, we pay special tribute to the mothers of … [read more]

On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, I declared a national emergency with respect to persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to … [read more]

The ability to read is the gateway to educational excellence and a key to success in any democratic society. On Literacy Day, we recognize the vital importance of literacy to our Nation and affirm our commitment to helping improve the lives of the men, women, and children in America and … [read more]

Generations of farmers and ranchers have strengthened our Nation and enriched our communities by providing us with food, raw materials, and energy. National Farm Safety and Health Week is an opportunity to celebrate their contributions to America and raise awareness about potential hazards these workers and their families face. This … [read more]

Americans are a diverse people, yet we are bound by common principles that teach us what it means to be American citizens. During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we recognize the many contributions of Hispanic Americans to our country. Through hard work, faith in God, and a deep love of family, … [read more]

As a Nation, we look to our service men and women as examples of courage and sacrifice. When our country and the world have needed brave Americans to advance the cause of freedom, our men and women in uniform have proudly stepped forward and selflessly endured hardships to defend liberty. … [read more]

Americans are united by the principles embodied in the United States Constitution. On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day and during Constitution Week, we celebrate the establishment of the United States Constitution and honor the Framers of this groundbreaking document. In 1787, the Framers of the Constitution met in Philadelphia and … [read more]

Under section 101(b) of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625; 50 U.S.C. App. 5(b) note), and a previous determination on September 12, 2005 (70 Fed. Reg. 54607), the exercise of certain authorities under the Trading with the Enemy Act is scheduled to terminate on September 14, 2006. I hereby determine … [read more]

Education is the cornerstone of a prosperous and hopeful Nation. By providing a quality education, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) help students achieve their dreams and realize the promise of America. During National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we recognize the significant contributions of HBCUs and underscore our … [read more]

On the fifth anniversary of the attacks of September 11, 2001, we recall the fire and horror at the twin towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and a Pennsylvania field. America will always remember the thousands of innocent lives taken by the enemies of freedom that morning. In … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 40(g) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress and to arrange for its publication in the Federal Register … [read more]

This year, we mark the fifth anniversary of the brutal and ruthless terrorist attacks carried out against our Nation on September 11, 2001. We will always remember the thousands of lives lost, and the innocent men, women, and children forever changed by those acts of evil. During these National Days … [read more]

Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency I declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, New York, New York, the Pentagon, and aboard United … [read more]

National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month provides an opportunity to raise awareness of risk factors, prevention, and treatment of this deadly disease. Our Nation is committed to fighting ovarian cancer, finding its cure, and providing hope and healing to those who are affected by it. While ovarian cancer remains one of … [read more]

The United States continues to move forward in its fight against cancer, yet an estimated 27,000 American sons, fathers, brothers, and husbands will be lost to prostate cancer this year. As we observe National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, we underscore our commitment to defeating prostate cancer by raising awareness about … [read more]

Pursuant to Section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, 22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1), I hereby determine that it is important to the national interest that up to $13.5 million be made available from the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund to meet unexpected urgent … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1012 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2291-4), I hereby certify, with respect to Colombia, that: (1) interdiction of aircraft reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking in that country's … [read more]

One year ago, a vast coastline of towns and communities was virtually destroyed; one of America's great cities was submerged; and many lives were lost in one of the worst natural disasters in our Nation's history. On this National Day of Remembrance of Hurricane Katrina, we honor those who did … [read more]

Alcohol and drug abuse disrupts families, threatens the safety of our neighborhoods, and ruins the lives of countless men, women, and youth. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we recognize the damaging effects of substance abuse and renew our support for individuals battling to overcome addiction. The theme … [read more]

Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of the Trade Act of 2002, I have notified the Congress of my intention to enter into a free trade agreement with the Republic of Colombia. Consistent with section 2105(a)(1)(A) of that Act, this notice shall be published in the Federal Register. … [read more]

During Minority Enterprise Development Week, we celebrate the outstanding progress made by minority business owners, recognize their important contributions to our Nation's vibrant economy, and emphasize our commitment to helping them succeed. Throughout our country, minority entrepreneurs strengthen our economic growth and keep our Nation moving forward. As Ronald Reagan … [read more]

The ratification of our Constitution's 19th Amendment on August 26, 1920, marked a turning point for America as women were guaranteed the right to vote. On Women's Equality Day, we celebrate this milestone and pay tribute to the inspiring individuals who stepped forward and asked our Nation to live up … [read more]

Consistent with the authority vested in me by section 2007 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act of 2002 (the “Act”), title II of Public Law 107-206 (22 U.S.C. 7421 et seq .), I hereby: You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress, and to arrange for … [read more]

On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided me under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 170l et seq .). Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August 17, … [read more]

1. On September 14, 2004, the United States entered into the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (USBFTA). The USBFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the “USBFTA Implementation Act”) (Public Law 109-169, 119 Stat. 3581) (19 U.S.C. 3805 note). … [read more]

On the 50th anniversary of our national motto, “In God We Trust,” we reflect on these words that guide millions of Americans, recognize the blessings of the Creator, and offer our thanks for His great gift of liberty. From its earliest days, the United States has been a Nation of … [read more]

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has helped fulfill the promise of America for millions of individuals living with disabilities. The anniversary of this landmark legislation is an important opportunity to celebrate our progress over the last 16 years and the many contributions individuals with disabilities make to our country. … [read more]

The best hope for peace is the expansion of freedom throughout the world. During Captive Nations Week, we reaffirm our commitment to advancing liberty, protecting human rights, and helping people realize the great promise of democracy. In proclaiming the first Captive Nations Week in 1959, President Dwight Eisenhower said that … [read more]

On July 22, 2004, by Executive Order 13348, I declared a national emergency and ordered related measures blocking the property of certain persons and prohibiting the importation of certain goods from Liberia, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). I took this action to deal with … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and section 1321 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), I hereby assign to you the functions … [read more]

As a child's first teachers, mentors, and role models, parents shape the character of those who will help to build the future of our Nation. On Parents' Day, we pay tribute to the hard work and sacrifice of the millions of devoted parents who provide guidance, support, and unconditional love … [read more]

Consistent with the authority contained in section 604 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107-228) (the “Act”), and with reference to the determinations set out in the report to the Congress transmitted on the date hereof, pursuant to section 603 of that Act, regarding noncompliance … [read more]

1. On August 5, 2004, the United States entered into the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (Agreement) with Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (Agreement countries). The Agreement was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free … [read more]

1. Pursuant to section 503(c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended (the “1974 Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(A)), beneficiary developing countries, except those designated as least-developed beneficiary developing countries or beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries as provided in section 503(c)(2)(D) of the 1974 Act (19 U.S.C. 2463(c)(2)(D)), are subject to … [read more]

On July 4, 1776, our Nation's Founders declared “That these United Colonies are, and of Right, ought to be free and Independent States.” This declaration marked a great milestone in the history of human freedom. On the 230th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, we pay tribute … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

Pursuant to section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2311), and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2753), I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Kingdom of Swaziland will strengthen the … [read more]

In the Pacific Ocean northwest of the principal islands of Hawaii lies an approximately 1,200 nautical mile stretch of coral islands, seamounts, banks, and shoals. The area, including the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, the Midway National Wildlife Refuge, the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, and the Battle … [read more]

Pursuant to section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2311), and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2753), I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Kingdom of Swaziland will strengthen the … [read more]

Pursuant to the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I hereby determine that it is necessary to protect the national security interests of the United … [read more]

On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, I declared a national emergency with respect to the Western Balkans pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States constituted … [read more]

On June 21, 2000, the President issued Executive Order 13159 (the ``order''), blocking property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that are or hereafter come within the possession or control of … [read more]

From our Nation's earliest days, Old Glory has stood for America's strength, unity, and liberty. During Flag Day and National Flag Week, we honor this enduring American symbol and celebrate the hope and ideals that it embodies. In 1777, the Second Continental Congress established the flag of a young Nation, … [read more]

By offering guidance, support, and unconditional love, a father is one of the most important influences in a child's life. On Father's Day, we honor our fathers and celebrate the special bond between a father and a child. Fathers play a significant role in shaping the character of their children … [read more]

During Caribbean-American Heritage Month, we celebrate the great contributions of Caribbean Americans to the fabric of our Nation, and we pay tribute to the common culture and bonds of friendship that unite the United States and the Caribbean countries. Our Nation has thrived as a country of immigrants, and we … [read more]

During National Oceans Week, we recognize the importance of the oceans to our national heritage, economy, and security and reaffirm our commitment to protecting them through wise stewardship and sensible management. The magnificent beauty of the oceans is a blessing to our country and the world. The oceans also sustain … [read more]

A hopeful society ensures that its children are provided with the knowledge, skills, and opportunities to succeed. On National Child's Day, we reaffirm our commitment to America's children and recognize the power that each of us has to make a difference in a young person's life. The character of a … [read more]

Pursuant to the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and consistent with section 6(j)(4)(B) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, Public Law 96-72, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)), and as continued in effect by Executive Order 13222 of … [read more]

African-American musicians have added to the rich culture of our country and of countries around the world. During Black Music Month, we recognize the African-American artists who have enhanced our lives and created some of our Nation's most treasured art forms. Throughout history, African-American artists have produced music with the … [read more]

Owning a home is an important part of the American dream. During National Homeownership Month, we raise awareness of homeownership and encourage more Americans to consider the benefits of owning their own home. Nearly 70 percent of Americans enjoy the satisfaction of owning their own home, and my Administration continues … [read more]

Great Outdoors Month is an opportunity to celebrate and experience America's natural splendor and renew our commitment to conserve our air, water, and land. During this month, we also honor the dedicated men and women who volunteer to help protect our natural resources. Americans live amid many wonders of nature. … [read more]

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby assign to the Secretary of State the functions of the President under: (1) subsection 1203(d) of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of … [read more]